Table of 78 Cell Tower Studies showing health problems.

Table of Contents

78 Studies Showing Health Effects from Cell Tower Radio Frequency Radiation

Health Effects
Pages

Cancer
Pages 2-4

Neurological Effects
Pages 5-7

Effects on Reproductive Organs and Fertility Effects
Pages 7-9

Effects on Wellbeing
Pages 9-14

Effects on Sleep
Pages 14-15

Effects on Cells
Pages 16

Effects on Eyes
Pages 17-18

Oxidative Stress
Pages 18-20

Effects on Blood
Pages 20-21

Death
Page 22-23

Effects on Hormones
Pages 23-24

Genetic Effects
Pages 24-29

Effects on Glands
Pages 29

Effects on Animals and Environment
Page 29-32

Effects on Skin
Page 32

Effects on Protein
Pages 33

Effects on Immune Function
Page 33-34

Electromagnetic Hyper-Sensitivity
Pages 34

RF Levels in Cities
Pages 34-36

Effects on Water
Page 36

RF Levels From Cell Towers
Pages 36-37

Danger Perception and Symptoms
Pages 37-38

Reason Why Not A Lot of Studies on Cell Towers
Page 38-39

Miscellaneous Effects
Pages 39

Cancer

Wolf R, Wolf D. Increased incidence of cancer near a cell-phone transmitter station. Inter J Cancer Prev 1(2):123-128, 2004.

Significant concern has been raised about possible health effects from exposure to radiofrequency (RF) electromagnetic fields, especially after the rapid introduction of mobile telecommunication systems. Parents are especially concerned with the possibility that children might develop cancer after exposure to the RF emissions from mobile telephone base stations erected in or near schools. The few epidemiologic studies that did report on cancer incidence in relation to RF radiation have generally presented negative or inconsistent results, and thus emphasized the need for more studies that should investigate cohorts with high RF exposure for changes in cancer incidence. The aim of this study is to investigate whether there is an increased cancer incidence in populations, living in a small area, and exposed to RF radiation from a cell-phone transmitter station.

This is an epidemiologic assessment, to determine whether the incidence of cancer cases among individuals exposed to a cell-phone transmitter station is different from that expected in Israel, in Netanya, or as compared to people who lived in a nearby area. Participants are people (n=622) living in the area near a cell-phone transmitter station for 3-7 years who were patients of one health clinic (of DW). The exposure began 1 year before the start of the study when the station first came into service. A second cohort of individuals (n=1222) who get their medical services in a clinic located nearby with very closely matched, environment, workplace and occupational characteristics was used for comparison.

In the area of exposure (area) eight cases of different kinds of cancer were diagnosed in a period of only one year. This rate of cancers was compared both with the rate of 31 cases per 10,000 per year in the general population and the 2/1222 rate recorded in the nearby clinic (area B). Relative cancer rates for female were 10.5 for area A. 0.6 for area B and 1 for the whole town of Netanya. Cancer incidence of women in area A was thus significantly higher (p<0.0001) compared with that of area B and the whole city. A comparison of the relative risk revealed that there were 4.15 times more cases in area than in the entire population. The study indicates an association between increased incidence of cancer and living in proximity to a cell-phone transmitter station.

 

Yakymenko I, Sidorik E, Kyrylenko S, Chekhun V. Long-term exposure to microwave radiation provokes cancer growth: evidences from radars and mobile communication systems.Exp Oncol. 33(2):62-70, 2011.

In this review we discuss alarming epidemiological and experimental data on possible carcinogenic effects of long term exposure to low intensity microwave (MW) radiation. Recently, a number of reports revealed that under certain conditions the irradiation by low intensity MW can substantially induce cancer progression in humans and in animal models. The carcinogenic effect of MW irradiation is typically manifested after long term (up to 10 years and more) exposure. Nevertheless, even a year of operation of a powerful base transmitting station for mobile communication reportedly resulted in a dramatic increase of cancer incidence among population living nearby. In addition, model studies in rodents unveiled a significant increase in carcinogenesis after 17-24 months of MW exposure both in tumor-prone and intact animals. To that, such metabolic changes, as overproduction of reactive oxygen species, 8-hydroxi-2-deoxyguanosine formation, or ornithine decarboxylase activation under exposure to low intensity MW confirm a stress impact of this factor on living cells. We also address the issue of standards for assessment of biological effects of irradiation. It is now becoming increasingly evident that assessment of biological effects of non-ionizing radiation based on physical (thermal) approach used in recommendations of current regulatory bodies, including the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) Guidelines, requires urgent reevaluation. We conclude that recent data strongly point to the need for re-elaboration of the current safety limits for non-ionizing radiation using recently obtained knowledge. We also emphasize that the everyday exposure of both occupational and general public to MW radiation should be regulated based on a precautionary principles which imply maximum restriction of excessive exposure.

 

Michelozzi P, Ancona C, Fusco D, Forastiere F, Perucci CA, Risk of leukemia and residence near a radio transmitter in Italy. Epidemiology 9 (Suppl) 354p, 1998.

We conducted a small area study to investigate a cluster of leukemia near a high power radio-transmitter in a peripheral area of Rome.  The leukemia mortality within 3.5 km (5,863 inhabitants) was higher than expected (SMR=2.5, 95% confident interval 1.07-4.83); the excess was due to a significant higher mortality among men (7 cases observed, SMR=3.5). The results of the Stone’s test, after adjusting for socio-economic confounding, showed a significant decline in risk with distance from the transmitter only among men (p=0.005), whereas the p-value for both sexes was p=0.07.

 

Lourencini da Silva R , Albano F, Lopes dos Santos LR , Tavares AD, Felzenszwalb I, The effect of electromagnetic field exposure on the formation of DNA lesions. Redox Rep 5(5):299-301, 2000.

In an attempt to determine whether electromagnetic field (EMF) exposure might lead to DNA damage, we exposed SnCl2-treated pBR322 plasmids to EMF and analysed the resulting conformational changes using agarose gel electrophoresis. An EMF-dependent potentiation of DNA scission (i.e. the appearance of relaxed plasmids) was observed. In confirmation of this, plasmids pre-exposed to EMF also were less capable of transforming Escherichia coli. The results indicate that EMF, in the presence of a transition metal, is capable of causing DNA damage. These observations support the idea that EMF, probably through secondary generation of reactive oxygen species, can be clastogenic and provide a possible explanation for the observed correlation between EMF exposure and the frequency of certain types of cancers in humans.

 

Li CY, Liu CC, Chang YH, Chou LP, Ko MC. A population-based case-control study of radiofrequency exposure in relation to childhood neoplasm. Sci Total Environ. 435-436:472-478, 2012.

This population-based case-control study in Taiwan considered incident cases aged 15 years or less and admitted in 2003 to 2007 for all neoplasm (ICD-9-CM: 140-239) (n=2606), including 939 leukemia and 394 brain neoplasm cases. Controls were randomly selected, with a case/control ratio of 1:30 and matched on year of birth, from all non-neoplasm children insured in the same year when the index case was admitted. Annual summarized power (ASP, watt-year) was calculated for each of the 71,185 mobile phone base stations (MPBS) in service between 1998 and 2007. Then, the annual power density (APD, watt-year/km(2)) of each township (n=367) was computed as a ratio of the total ASP of all MPBS in a township to the area of that particular township. Exposure of each study subject to radio frequency (RF) was indicated by the averaged APD within 5 years prior to the neoplasm diagnosis (cases) or July 1st of the year when the index case was admitted (controls) in the township where the subject lived. Unconditional logistic regression model with generalized estimation equation was employed to calculate the covariate-adjusted odds ratio [AOR] of childhood neoplasm in relation to RF exposure. A higher than median averaged APD (approximately 168 WYs/km(2)) was significantly associated with an increased AOR for all neoplasms (1.13; 1.01 to 1.28), but not for leukemia (1.23; 0.99 to 1.52) or brain neoplasm (1.14, 0.83 to 1.55). This study noted a significantly increased risk of all neoplasms in children with higher-than-median RF exposure to MPBS. The slightly elevated risk was seen for leukemia and brain neoplasm, but was not statistically significant. These results may occur due to several methodological limitations.

 

Johnson EH, Chima SC, Muirhead DE, A cerebral primitive neuroectodermal tumor in a squirrel monkey (Saimiri sciureus). J Med Primatol 28(2):91-96, 1999.

An adult squirrel monkey with a history of long-term exposure to microwave radiation was found at necropsy to have a malignant tumor of the right cerebral cortex. Gross examination revealed a mass with expanding borders in the right frontoparietal cortex with compression of the adjacent lateral ventricle. Microscopy revealed a tumor composed of sheets of moderate-sized cells, resembling an oligodendroglioma, with clear cytoplasm and central nuclei interrupted by delicate vasculature. Malignant features were present in the form of marked nuclear pleomorphism, frequent mitotic figures, and focal necrosis. A neuronal cell origin for this tumor was supported by immunohistochemical analysis, which revealed immunopositivity for neurofilament proteins and neuron-specific enolase. Staining for vimentin and glial fibrillary acid protein was negative, except in reactive astrocytes at the tumor margins and adjacent to intra-tumoral blood vessels. Antibody activity against Ki-67 antigen, a marker of rapidly proliferating tumor cells, and p53 oncoprotein was strongly positive, indicative of the aggressive and malignant nature of this tumor. The tumor was diagnosed as a cerebral primitive neuroectodermal tumor.

 

Neurological Effects

 

Khurana VG, Hardell L, Everaert J, Bortkiewicz A, Carlberg M, Ahonen M. Epidemiological evidence for a health risk from mobile phone base stations.Int J Occup Environ Health. 16(3):263-267, 2010.

Human populations are increasingly exposed to microwave/radiofrequency (RF) emissions from wireless communication technology, including mobile phones and their base stations. By searching PubMed, we identified a total of 10 epidemiological studies that assessed for putative health effects of mobile phone base stations. Seven of these studies explored the association between base station proximity and neurobehavioral effects and three investigated cancer. We found that eight of the 10 studies reported increased prevalence of adverse neurobehavioral symptoms or cancer in populations living at distances < 500 meters from base stations. None of the studies reported exposure above accepted international guidelines, suggesting that current guidelines may be inadequate in protecting the health of human populations. We believe that comprehensive epidemiological studies of long-term mobile phone base station exposure are urgently required to more definitively understand its health impact.

 

Hocking B, Westerman R. Neurological abnormalities associated with CDMA exposure. Occup Med (Lond) 51(6):410-413, 2001.

Dysaesthesiae of the scalp and neurological abnormality after mobile phone use have been reported previously, but the roles of the phone per se or the radiations in causing these findings have been questioned. We report finding a neurological abnormality in a patient after accidental exposure of the left side of the face to mobile phone radiation [code division multiple access (CDMA)] from a down-powered mobile phone base station antenna. He had headaches, unilateral left blurred vision and pupil constriction, unilateral altered sensation on the forehead, and abnormalities of current perception thresholds on testing the left trigeminal ophthalmic nerve. His nerve function recovered during 6 months follow-up. His exposure was 0.015-0.06 mW/cm(2) over 1-2 h. The implications regarding health effects of radiofrequency radiation are discussed.

 

Abdel-Rassoul G, El-Fateh OA, Salem MA, Michael A, Farahat F, El-Batanouny M, Salem E. Neurobehavioral effects among inhabitants around mobile phone base stations. Neurotoxicology. 28(2):434-40, 2007.

BACKGROUND: There is a general concern on the possible hazardous health effects of exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic radiations (RFR) emitted from mobile phone base station antennas on the human nervous system. AIM: To identify the possible neurobehavioral deficits among inhabitants living nearby mobile phone base stations. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted on (85) inhabitants living nearby the first mobile phone station antenna in Menoufiya governorate, Egypt, 37 are living in a building under the station antenna while 48 opposite the station. A control group (80) participants were matched with the exposed for age, sex, occupation and educational level. All participants completed a structured questionnaire containing: personal, educational and medical histories; general and neurological examinations; neurobehavioral test battery (NBTB) [involving tests for visuomotor speed, problem solving, attention and memory]; in addition to Eysenck personality questionnaire (EPQ). RESULTS: The prevalence of neuropsychiatric complaints as headache (23.5%), memory changes (28.2%), dizziness (18.8%), tremors (9.4%), depressive symptoms (21.7%), and sleep disturbance (23.5%) were significantly higher among exposed inhabitants than controls: (10%), (5%), (5%), (0%), (8.8%) and (10%), respectively (P<0.05). The NBTB indicated that the exposed inhabitants exhibited a significantly lower performance than controls in one of the tests of attention and short-term auditory memory [Paced Auditory Serial Addition Test (PASAT)]. Also, the inhabitants opposite the station exhibited a lower performance in the problem solving test (block design) than those under the station. All inhabitants exhibited a better performance in the two tests of visuomotor speed (Digit symbol and Trailmaking B) and one test of attention (Trailmaking A) than controls. The last available measures of RFR emitted from the first mobile phone base station antennas in Menoufiya governorate were less than the allowable standard level. CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS: Inhabitants living nearby mobile phone base stations are at risk for developing neuropsychiatric problems and some changes in the performance of neurobehavioral functions either by facilitation or inhibition. So, revision of standard guidelines for public exposure to RER from mobile phone base station antennas and using of NBTB for regular assessment and early detection of biological effects among inhabitants around the stations are recommended.

 

Akbari A, Jelodar G, Nazifi S. Vitamin C protects rat cerebellum and encephalon from oxidative stress following exposure to radiofrequency wave generated by a BTS antenna model. Toxicol Mech Methods. 24(5):347-352, 2014.

Radio frequency wave (RFW) generated by base transceiver station has been reported to produce deleterious effects on the central nervous system function, possibly through oxidative stress. This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of RFW-induced oxidative stress in the cerebellum and encephalon and the prophylactic effect of vitamin C on theses tissues by measuring the antioxidant enzymes activity, including: glutathione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase, catalase, and malondialdehyde (MDA). Thirty-two adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into four equal groups. The control group; the control-vitamin C group received L-ascorbic acid (200 mg/kg of body weight/day by gavage) for 45 days. The RFW group was exposed to RFW and the RFW+ vitamin C group was exposed to RFW and received vitamin C. At the end of the experiment, all groups were killed and encephalon and cerebellum of all rats were removed and stored at -70 °C for measurement of antioxidant enzymes activity and MDA. The results indicate that exposure to RFW in the test group decreased antioxidant enzymes activity and increased MDA compared with the control groups (p < 0.05). The protective role of vitamin C in the treated group improved antioxidant enzymes activity and reduced MDA compared with the test group (p < 0.05). It can be concluded that RFW causes oxidative stress in the brain and vitamin C improves the antioxidant enzymes activity and decreases MDA.

 

Bak M, Dudarewicz A, Zmyślony M, Sliwinska-Kowalska M. Effects of GSM signals during exposure to event related potentials (ERPs). Int J Occup Med Environ Health. 23(2):191-199, 2010.

Objectives: The primary aim of this work was to assess the effect of electromagnetic field (EMF) from the GSM mobile phone system on human brain function. The assessment was based on the assay of event related potentials (ERPs). Material and Methods: The study group consisted of 15 volunteers, including 7 men and 8 women. The test protocol comprised determination of P300 wave in each volunteer during exposure to the EMF. To eliminate possible effects of the applied test procedure on the final result, the test was repeated without EMF exposure. P300 latency, amplitude, and latency of the N1, N2, P2 waves were analysed. Results: The statistical analysis revealed an effect of EMF on P300 amplitude. In the experiment with EMF exposure, lower P300 amplitudes were observed only at the time in which the volunteers were exposed to EMF; when the exposure was discontinued, the values of the amplitude were the same as those observed before EMF application. No such change was observed when the experiment was repeated with sham exposure, which may be considered as an indirect proof that lower P300 amplitude values were due to EMF exposure. No statistically significant changes were noted in the latencies of the N1, N2, P2 waves that precede the P300 wave, nor in the latency of the P300 itself. Conclusions: The results suggest that exposure to GSM EMF exerts some effects on CNS, including effects on long latency ERPs.

 

Hinrichs H, Heinze HJ.Effects of GSM electromagnetic field on the MEG during an encoding-retrieval task. Neuroreport. 15(7):1191-1194, 2004.

Potential effects of GSM 1800 electromagnetic fields (EMF) on verbal memory encoding were investigated by recording event-related magnetic fields (ERMF) from the brain during subsequent memory retrieval. Twelve normal subjects participated in the study. After encoding words from a study list presented in the first phase they had to discriminate old from new words mixed together in a test list presented during the second phase. All subjects performed two experimental sessions, one with exposure to EMF during the study phase, and one without. Exposure to EMF changed an early (350-400 ms) task-specific component of the ERMF indicating an interference of EMF and item encoding. Behavioural measures were not significantly affected. Adverse health effects cannot be derived from these data.

 

Effects on Reproductive Organs and Fertility Effects

 

Magras, IN, Xenos, TD, RF radiation-induced changes in the prenatal development of mice. Bioelectromagnetics 18(6):455-461, 1997.

The possible effects of radiofrequency (RF) radiation on prenatal development has been investigated in mice. This study consisted of RF level measurements and in vivo experiments at several places around an “antenna park.” At these locations RF power densities between 168 nW/cm2 and 1053 nW/cm2 were measured. Twelve pairs of mice, divided in two groups, were placed in locations of different power densities and were repeatedly mated five times. One hundred eighteen newborns were collected. They were measured, weighed, and examined macro- and microscopically. A progressive decrease in the number of newborns per dam was observed, which ended in irreversible infertility. The prenatal development of the newborns, however, evaluated by the crown-rump length, the body weight, and the number of the lumbar, sacral, and coccygeal vertebrae, was improved.

 

Jelodar G, Nazifi S, Akbari A. The prophylactic effect of vitamin C on induced oxidative stress in rat testis following exposure to 900 MHz radio frequency wave generated by a BTS antenna model.  Electromagn Biol Med. 2013 Jan 16. [Epub ahead of print]

Radio frequency wave (RFW) generated by base transceiver station (BTS) has been reported to make deleterious effects on reproduction, possibly through oxidative stress. This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of RFW generated by BTS on oxidative stress in testis and the prophylactic effect of vitamin C by measuring the antioxidant enzymes activity, including glutathione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase, and malondialdehyde (MDA). Thirty-two adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into four experimental groups and treated daily for 45 days as follows: sham, sham+vitamin C (l-ascorbic acid 200 mg/kg of body weight/day by gavage), RFW (exposed to 900 MHz RFW) ‘sham’ and ‘RFW’ animals were given the vehicle, i.e., distilled water and the RFW+vitamin C group (received vitamin C in addition to exposure to RFW). At the end of the experiment, all the rats were sacrificed and their testes were removed and used for measurement of antioxidant enzymes and MDA activity. The results indicate that exposure to RFW in the test group decreased antioxidant enzymes activity and increased MDA compared with the control groups (p < 0.05). In the treated group, vitamin C improved antioxidant enzymes activity and reduced MDA compared with the test group (p < 0.05). It can be concluded that RFW causes oxidative stress in testis and vitamin C improves the antioxidant enzymes activity and decreases MDA.

 

Lukac N, Massanyi P, Roychoudhury S, Capcarova M, Tvrda E, Knazicka Z, Kolesarova A, Danko J. In vitro effects of radiofrequency electromagnetic waves on bovine spermatozoa motility. J Environ Sci Health A Tox Hazard Subst Environ Eng. 46(12):1417-1423, 2011.

In this study the effects of 1800 MHz GSM-like radiofrequency electromagnetic waves (RF-EMW) exposure on bovine semen was monitored. The experimental samples were analyzed in vitro in four time periods (0, 30, 120 and 420 min) and compared with unexposed samples (control). Spermatozoa motility was determined by computer assisted semen analyzer (CASA). Evaluation of the percentage of motile spermatozoa showed significant (P < 0.001) decrease in experimental groups after 120 and 420 min of culture when exposed to microwaves, in comparison to control. Similar spermatozoa motility inhibition was detected for the percentage of progressively motile spermatozoa, too. Average path distance decreased significantly (p < 0.001) in experimental groups after 30 and 420 min of culture. Path velocity increased in the experimental groups exposed to RF-EMW after 30 minutes of culture, but subsequently decreased after 420 min of culture, in comparison to control. This indicates a possible initial stimulation and subsequent velocity inhibition of bovine spermatozoa under RF-EMW exposure. Changes in spermatozoa motility were also detected for some fine parameters, too. A significant decrease (P < 0.001) was noted for amplitude of lateral head displacement in the experimental group after 420 minutes of culture. Detailed in vitro motility analysis of bovine spermatozoa exposed to microwave radiation suggested that the parameters of path and velocity at the beginning of the culture significantly increase, but after longer culture (420 minutes) a significant decrease occur in the experimental group as compared to control. In general, results of this experiment indicate a negative time-dependent effect of 1800 MHz RF-EMW radiation on bovine spermatozoa motility.

 

Effects on Wellbeing

 

Santini R, Santini P, Danze JM, Le Ruz P, Seigne M.Study of the health of people living in the vicinity of mobile phone base stations: I. Influence of distance and sex. Pathol Biol (Paris) 50(6):369-373, 2002. [Article in French]

A survey study using questionnaire was conducted in 530 people (270 men, 260 women) living or not in vicinity of cellular phone base stations, on 18 Non Specific Health Symptoms. Comparisons of complaints frequencies (CHI-SQUARE test with Yates correction) in relation with distance from base station and sex, show significant (p < 0.05) increase as compared to people living > 300 m or not exposed to base station, till 300 m for tiredness, 200 m for headache, sleep disturbance, discomfort, etc. 100 m for irritability, depression, loss of memory, dizziness, libido decrease, etc. Women significantly more often than men (p < 0.05) complained of headache, nausea, loss of appetite, sleep disturbance, depression, discomfort and visual perturbations. This first study on symptoms experienced by people living in vicinity of base stations shows that, in view of radioprotection, minimal distance of people from cellular phone base stations should not be < 300 m.

 

Santini R, Santini P, Le Ruz P, Danze JM, Seigne M, Survey study of people living in the vicinity of cellular phone base stations. Electromag Biol Med 22:41-49, 2003.

A survey study was conducted, using a questionnaire, on 530 people (270 men, 260 women) living or not in proximity to cellular phone base stations. Eighteen different symptoms (Non Specific Health Symptoms-NSHS), described as radiofrequency sickness, were studied by means of the chi-square test with Yates correction. The results that were obtained underline that certain complaints are experienced only in the immediate vicinity of base stations (up to 10 m for nausea, loss of appetite, visual disturbances), and other at greater distances from base stations (up to 100 m for irritability, depressive tendencies, lowering of libido, and up to 200 m for headaches, sleep disturbance, feeling of discomfort). In the 200 m to 300 m zone, only the complaint of fatigue is experienced significantly more often when compared with subjects residing at more than 300 m or not exposed (reference group). For seven of the studied symptoms and for the distance up to 300 m, the frequency of reported complaints is significantly higher (P< 0.05) for women in comparison to men. Significant differences are also observed in relation to the ages of subjects, and for the location of subjects in relation to the antennas and to other electromagnetic factors.

Navarro EA, Sequra J, Portoles M, Gomez-Perretta de Mateo C. The Microwave Syndrome: A Preliminary Study in Spain. Electromag Biol Med 22:161-169, 2003.

A health survey was carried out in Murcia, Spain, in the vicinity of a Cellular Phone Base Station working in DCS-1800 MHz. This survey contained health items related to “microwave sickness” or “RF syndrome.” The microwave power density was measured at the respondents’ homes. Statistical analysis showed significant correlation between the declared severity of the symptoms and the measured power density. The separation of respondents into two different exposure groups also showed an increase of the declared severity in the group with the higher exposure.

 

Lerchl A, Krüger H, Niehaus M, Streckert JR, Bitz AK, Hansen V. Effects of mobile phone electromagnetic fields at nonthermal SAR values on melatonin and body weight of Djungarian hamsters (Phodopus sungorus). J Pineal Res. 44(3):267-272, 2008.

In three experiments, adult male Djungarian hamsters (Phodopus sungorus) were exposed 24 hr/day for 60 days to radio frequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF) at 383, 900, and 1800 MHz, modulated according to the TETRA (383 MHz) and GSM standards (900 and 1800 MHz), respectively. A radial waveguide system ensured a well defined and uniform exposure at whole-body averaged specific absorption rates of 80 mW/kg, which is equal to the upper limit of whole-body exposure of the general population in Germany and other countries. For each experiment, using two identical waveguides, hamsters were exposed (n = 120) and sham-exposed (n = 120) in a blind fashion. In all experiments, pineal and serum melatonin levels as well as the weights of testes, brain, kidneys, and liver were not affected. At 383 MHz, exposure resulted in a significant transient increase in body weight up to 4%, while at 900 MHz this body weight increase was more pronounced (up to 6%) and not transient. At 1800 MHz, no effect on body weight was seen. The results corroborate earlier findings which have shown no effects of RF-EMF on melatonin levels in vivo and in vitro. The data are in accordance with the hypothesis that absorbed RF energy may result in metabolic changes which eventually cause body weight increases in exposed animals. The data support the notion that metabolic effects of RF-EMFs need to be investigated in more detail in future studies.

 

Kato Y, Johansson O. Reported functional impairments of electrohypersensitive Japanese: A questionnaire survey. Pathophysiology.19(2) 95-100, 2012.

An increasing number of people worldwide complain that they have become electromagnetic hypersensitive (EHS). We conducted a questionnaire survey of EHS persons in Japan. The aim was to identify electromagnetic fields (EMF) and plausible EMF sources that caused their symptoms. Postal questionnaires were distributed via a self-help group, and 75 participants (95% women) responded. Reported major complaints were “fatigue/tiredness” (85%), “headache”, “concentration, memory, and thinking” difficulty (81%, respectively). Seventy-two per cent used some form of complementary/alternative therapy. The most plausible trigger of EHS onset was a mobile phone base station or personal handy-phone system (37%). Sixty-five percent experienced health problems to be due to the radiation from other passengers’ mobile phones in trains or buses, and 12% reported that they could not use public transportation at all. Fifty-three percent had a job before the onset, but most had lost their work and/or experienced a decrease in income. Moreover, 85.3% had to take measures to protect themselves from EMF, such as moving to low EMF areas, or buying low EMF electric appliances. EHS persons were suffering not only from their symptoms, but also from economical and social problems.

 

Hutter HP, Moshammer H, Wallner P, Kundi M. Subjective symptoms, sleeping problems, and cognitive performance in subjects living near mobile phone base stations. Occup Environ Med. 63(5):307-313, 2006.

BACKGROUND: The erection of mobile telephone base stations in inhabited areas has raised concerns about possible health effects caused by emitted microwaves. METHODS: In a cross-sectional study of randomly selected inhabitants living in urban and rural areas for more than one year near to 10 selected base stations, 365 subjects were investigated. Several cognitive tests were performed, and wellbeing and sleep quality were assessed. Field strength of high-frequency electromagnetic fields (HF-EMF) was measured in the bedrooms of 336 households. RESULTS: Total HF-EMF and exposure related to mobile telecommunication were far below recommended levels (max. 4.1 mW/m2). Distance from antennae was 24-600 m in the rural area and 20-250 m in the urban area. Average power density was slightly higher in the rural area (0.05 mW/m2) than in the urban area (0.02 mW/m2). Despite the influence of confounding variables, including fear of adverse effects from exposure to HF-EMF from the base station, there was a significant relation of some symptoms to measured power density; this was highest for headaches. Perceptual speed increased, while accuracy decreased insignificantly with increasing exposure levels. There was no significant effect on sleep quality. CONCLUSION: Despite very low exposure to HF-EMF, effects on wellbeing and performance cannot be ruled out, as shown by recently obtained experimental results; however, mechanisms of action at these low levels are unknown.

 

Bortkiewicz A, Zmyslony M, Szyjkowska A, Gadzicka E.  [Subjective symptoms reported by people living in the vicinity of cellular phone base stations: a review of the studies] Med Pr. 55(4):345-351, 2004. [Article in Polish]

The problem of health effects of electromagnetic fields (EMF) emitted by cellular phone base stations evokes much interest in view of the fact that people living in their vicinity are fated to continuous exposure to EMF. None of the studies carried out throughout the world have revealed excessive values of standards adopted by the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP). A questionnaire was used as a study tool. The results of the questionnaire survey reveal that people living in the vicinity of base stations report various complaints mostly of the circulatory system, but also of sleep disturbances, irritability, depression, blurred vision, concentration difficulties, nausea, lack of appetite, headache and vertigo. The performed studies showed the relationship between the incidence of individual symptoms, the level of exposure, and the distance between a residential area and a base station. This association was observed in both groups of persons, those who linked their complaints with the presence of the base station and those who did not notice such a relation. Further studies, clinical and those based on questionnaires, are needed to explain the background of reported complaints.

 

Bortkiewicz A, Gadzicka E, Szyjkowska A, Politański P, Mamrot P, Szymczak W, Zmyślony M. Subjective complaints of people living near mobile phone base stations in Poland. Int J Occup Med Environ Health. 25(1):31-40, 2012.

OBJECTIVES: The aim of our study was to assess the health conditions and subjective symptoms of the inhabitants living in the base stations vicinity and to analyse the relationship between the complaints and level of exposure to electromagnetic fields (EMF).MATERIALS AND METHODS: Our study was performed in housing estates located in five regions of Łódź. The electric field measurements were performed in the buildings located closest to the azimuth of the antennas. Respondents were selected by trained interviewers using an uniform procedure. The number of the households to be examined was set at a minimum of 420. The questionnaire contained: demographic data, occupational and environmental exposure to EMF, health condition, subjective complaints. Results were adjusted for confounders (age, gender, EMF at the workplace and EMF emitted by household equipment) using multiple regression model.RESULTS: 181 men and 319 women from 500 households were examined. Electric field above 0.8 V/m was recorded in 12% of flats. There was no significant correlation between electric field strength and the distance of examined flats from the base stations. To make possible comparison with relevant literature, we analysed also the frequency of the reported symptoms vs. the distance. Headache was declared by 57% people, most frequently (36.4%) living 100-150 m away from the base station compared to people living at longer distances (p = 0.013). 24.4% subjects, mostly living at a distance above 150 m, declared impaired memory. Difference was statistically significant in comparison with people living at other distances (p = 0.004).CONCLUSIONS: The explanation why we did not find any correlation between the electric field strength and frequency of subjective symptoms but found a correlation between subjective symptoms and distance from base station needs further studies. Maybe new metrics of exposure assessment should be adopted for this purpose.

 

Augner C, Florian M, Pauser G, Oberfeld G, Hacker GW. GSM base stations: Short-term effects on well-being. Bioelectromagnetics. 30:73-80, 2009.

The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of short-term GSM (Global System for Mobile Communications) cellular phone base station RF-EMF (radiofrequency electromagnetic fields) exposure on psychological symptoms (good mood, alertness, calmness) as measured by a standardized well-being questionnaire. Fifty-seven participants were selected and randomly assigned to one of three different exposure scenarios. Each of those scenarios subjected participants to five 50-min exposure sessions, with only the first four relevant for the study of psychological symptoms. Three exposure levels were created by shielding devices in a field laboratory, which could be installed or removed during the breaks between sessions such that double-blinded conditions prevailed. The overall median power flux densities were 5.2 microW/m(2) during “low,” 153.6 microW/m(2) during “medium,” and 2126.8 microW/m(2) during “high” exposure sessions. For scenario HM and MH, the first and third sessions were “low” exposure. The second session was “high” and the fourth was “medium” in scenario HM; and vice versa for scenario MH. Scenario LL had four successive “low” exposure sessions constituting the reference condition. Participants in scenarios HM and MH (high and medium exposure) were significantly calmer during those sessions than participants in scenario LL (low exposure throughout) (P = 0.042). However, no significant differences between exposure scenarios in the “good mood” or “alertness” factors were obtained. We conclude that short-term exposure to GSM base station signals may have an impact on well-being by reducing psychological arousal.

 

Augner C, Hacker GW. Are people living next to mobile phone base stations more strained? Relationship of health concerns, self-estimated distance to base station, and psychological parameters. Indian J Occup Environ Med. 13(3):141-145, 2009.

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Coeval with the expansion of mobile phone technology and the associated obvious presence of mobile phone base stations, some people living close to these masts reported symptoms they attributed to electromagnetic fields (EMF). Public and scientific discussions arose with regard to whether these symptoms were due to EMF or were nocebo effects. The aim of this study was to find out if people who believe that they live close to base stations show psychological or psychobiological differences that would indicate more strain or stress. Furthermore, we wanted to detect the relevant connections linking self-estimated distance between home and the next mobile phone base station (DBS), daily use of mobile phone (MPU), EMF-health concerns, electromagnetic hypersensitivity, and psychological strain parameters. DESIGN, MATERIALS AND METHODS: Fifty-seven participants completed standardized and non-standardized questionnaires that focused on the relevant parameters. In addition, saliva samples were used as an indication to determine the psychobiological strain by concentration of alpha-amylase, cortisol, immunoglobulin A (IgA), and substance P. RESULTS: Self-declared base station neighbors (DBS </= 100 meters) had significantly higher concentrations of alpha-amylase in their saliva, higher rates in symptom checklist subscales (SCL) somatization, obsessive-compulsive, anxiety, phobic anxiety, and global strain index PST (Positive Symptom Total). There were no differences in EMF-related health concern scales. CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that self-declared base station neighbors are more strained than others. EMF-related health concerns cannot explain these findings. Further research should identify if actual EMF exposure or other factors are responsible for these results.

 

Blettner M, Schlehofer B, Breckenkamp J, Kowall B, Schmiedel S, Reis U, Potthoff P, Schuez J, Berg-Beckhoff G. Mobile phone base stations and adverse health effects: Phase 1: A population-based cross-sectional study in Germany. Occup Environ Med. 66(2):118-123. 2009.

Abstract OBJECTIVE: The aim of this first phase of a cross-sectional study from Germany was to investigate whether proximity of residence to mobile phone base stations as well as risk perception is associated with health complaints. METHODS: We conducted a population-based multi-phase cross-sectional study within the context of a large panel survey regularly carried out by a private research institute in Germany. In the initial phase, which we will report on in this paper, 30,047 persons from a total of 51,444 who took part in the nationwide survey also answered questions on how mobile phone base stations affect their health. A list of 38 health complaints was used. A multiple linear regression model was used to identify predictors of health complaints including proximity of residence to mobile phone base stations and risk perception. RESULTS: Of the 30,047 participants (response rate 58.6%), 18.7% of participants were concerned about adverse health effects of mobile phone base stations, while an additional 10.3% attributed their personal adverse health effects to the exposure from them. Participants who are concerned about or attribute adverse health effects to mobile phone base stations and those living in the vicinity of a mobile phone base station (500 m) reported slightly more health complaints than others. CONCLUSIONS: A substantial proportion of the German population is concerned about adverse health effects caused by exposure from mobile phone base stations. The observed slightly higher prevalence of health complaints near base stations can however not be fully explained by attributions or concerns.

 

Effects on Sleep

 

 Mohammed HS, Fahmy HM, Radwah NM, Elsayed AA. Non-thermal continuous and modulated electromagnetic radiation fields effects on sleep EEG of rats.  J Adv Res 4(2) 181-187, 2013.

In the present study, the alteration in the sleep EEG in rats due to chronic exposure to low-level non-thermal electromagnetic radiation was investigated. Two types of radiation fields were used; 900 MHz unmodulated wave and 900 MHz modulated at 8 and 16 Hz waves. Animals has exposed to radiation fields for 1 month (1 h/day). EEG power spectral analyses of exposed and control animals during slow wave sleep (SWS) and rapid eye movement sleep (REM sleep) revealed that the REM sleep is more susceptible to modulated radiofrequency radiation fields (RFR) than the SWS. The latency of REM sleep increased due to radiation exposure indicating a change in the ultradian rhythm of normal sleep cycles. The cumulative and irreversible effect of radiation exposure was proposed and the interaction of the extremely low frequency radiation with the similar EEG frequencies was suggested.

 

Liu H, Chen G, Pan Y, Chen Z, Jin W, Sun C, Chen C, Dong X, Chen K, Xu Z, Zhang S, Yu Y. (2014) Occupational Electromagnetic Field Exposures Associated with Sleep Quality: A Cross-Sectional Study. PLoS ONE 9(10): e110825. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0110825.

BACKGROUND: Exposure to electromagnetic field (EMF) emitted by mobile phone and other machineries concerns half the world’s population and raises the problem of their impact on human health. The present study aims to explore the effects of electromagnetic field exposures on sleep quality and sleep duration among workers from electric power plant. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted in an electric power plant of Zhejiang Province, China. A total of 854 participants were included in the final analysis. The detailed information of participants was obtained by trained investigators using a structured questionnaire, which including socio-demographic characteristics, lifestyle variables, sleep variables and electromagnetic exposures. Physical examination and venous blood collection were also carried out for every study subject. RESULTS: After grouping daily occupational electromagnetic exposure into three categories, subjects with long daily exposure time had a significantly higher risk of poor sleep quality in comparison to those with short daily exposure time. The adjusted odds ratios were 1.68 (95%CI: 1.18, 2.39) and 1.57 (95%CI: 1.10, 2.24) across tertiles. Additionally, among the subjects with long-term occupational exposure, the longer daily occupational time apparently increased the risk of poor sleep quality (OR (95%CI): 2.12 (1.23∼3.66) in the second tertile; 1.83 (1.07∼3.15) in the third tertile). There was no significant association of long-term occupational exposure duration, monthly electric fee or years of mobile-phone use with sleep quality or sleep duration. CONCLUSIONS: The findings showed that daily occupational EMF exposure was positively associated with poor sleep quality. It implies EMF exposure may damage human sleep quality rather than sleep duration.

 

Hung CS, Anderson C, Horne JA, McEvoy P. Mobile phone ‘talk-mode’ signal delays EEG-determined sleep onset. Neurosci Lett. 421: 82-86, 2007.

Mobile phones signals are pulse-modulated microwaves, and EEG studies suggest that the extremely low-frequency (ELF) pulse modulation has sleep effects. However, ‘talk’, ‘listen’ and ‘standby’ modes differ in the ELF (2, 8, and 217Hz) spectral components and specific absorption rates, but no sleep study has differentiated these modes. We used a GSM900 mobile phone controlled by a base-station simulator and a test SIM card to simulate these three specific modes, transmitted at 12.5% (23dBm) of maximum power. At weekly intervals, 10 healthy young adults, sleep restricted to 6h, were randomly and single-blind exposed to one of: talk, listen, standby and sham (nil signal) modes, for 30min, at 13:30h, whilst lying in a sound-proof, lit bedroom, with a thermally insulated silent phone beside the right ear. Bipolar EEGs were recorded continuously, and subjective ratings of sleepiness obtained every 3min (before, during and after exposure). After exposure the phone and base-station were switched off, the bedroom darkened, and a 90min sleep opportunity followed. We report on sleep onset using: (i) visually scored latency to onset of stage 2 sleep, (ii) EEG power spectral analysis. There was no condition effect for subjective sleepiness. Post-exposure, sleep latency after talk mode was markedly and significantly delayed beyond listen and sham modes. This condition effect over time was also quite evident in 1-4Hz EEG frontal power, which is a frequency range particularly sensitive to sleep onset. It is possible that 2, 8, 217Hz modulation may differentially affect sleep onset.

 

 

 

 

Effects on Cells

 

Neshev NN, Kirilova EI, Environmental-health aspects of pulse-modulated  microwaves. Rev Environ Health 11(1-2):85-88, 1996.

Our theoretical model describes the potential influence of irradiation with pulse-modulated microwaves on the conformational oscillations of enzymes in living organisms. Certain values of pulse-repetition time, determined by the period of conformational oscillations of the corresponding type of enzyme, can produce the effect at extremely low power levels. Synchronized oscillations in identical enzyme molecules produce in turn large-scale oscillations within living cells. Thus, short periods of exposure to pulse-modulated microwaves could be beneficial to cellular function, whereas maintaining the amplitude of such oscillations at a maximum for long periods may have a stressful effect on biochemical processes. The model discloses the possible environmental-health risks of long-term exposure in ambient fields that are created by radar, navigation, and communication systems.

 

Kwee S, Raskmark P,  Changes in cell proliferation due to environmental non-ionizing radiation 2. Microwave radiation. Bioelectrochem Bioenerg 44(2) 251-255, 1998.

 

Due to the use of mobile telephones, there is an increased exposure of the environment to weak radiofrequency (RF) electromagnetic fields, emitted by these devices. This study was undertaken to investigate if the microwave radiation from these fields will have a similar effect on cell proliferation as weak electromagnetic (ELF) fields. The field was generated by signal simulation of the Global System for Mobile communications (GSM) of 960 MHz. Cell cultures, growing in microtiter plates, were exposed in a specially constructed chamber, a Transverse Electromagnetic (TEM) cell. The Specific Absorption Rate (SAR) values for each cell well were calculated for this exposure system. Experiments were performed on cell cultures of transformed human epithelial amnion cells (AMA), which were exposed to 960 MHz microwave fields at three different power levels and three different exposure times, respectively. It was found that cell growth in the exposed cells was decreased in comparison to that in the control and sham exposed cells. Cell proliferation during the period following exposure varied not only with the various SAR levels, but also with the length of exposure time. On the other hand, repeated periods of exposure did not seem to change the effects. There was a general linear correlation between power level and growth change. However, the exposure time required to obtain the maximum effect was not the same for the various power levels. It turned out that at low power level, a maximum effect was first reached after a longer exposure time than at higher power level. A similar phenomenon was registered in the studies on ELF electromagnetic fields. Here, it was found that there was a linear correlation between the length of exposure time to obtain maximum effect and field strength.

 

Effects on Eyes

 

Lu L, Xu H, Wang X, Guo G.Increased nitric oxide synthase activity is essential for electromagnetic-pulse-induced blood-retinal barrier breakdown in vivo.Brain Res. 1264:104-10, 2009.

PURPOSE: To examine whether electromagnetic pulses (EMPs) affected the permeability of the blood-retinal barrier (BRB), gene expression of occludin and activity of nitric oxide synthase (NOS).METHODS: Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were used and randomized into EMP and control groups. Retinas were removed immediately, and 2 h or 24 h after EMP radiation. BRB permeability was analyzed by transmission electron microscopy and Evans Blue staining. Retinal NOS activity and concentrations of nitrite and nitrate were measured. Occludin mRNA and protein levels were detected by RT-PCR and Western blotting.RESULTS: Exposure of SD rats to EMP resulted in increased BRB permeability, with the greatest decrease in occludin at 24 h. Moreover, this permeability defect was also correlated with significant increases in the formation of NO and induction of NOS activity in SD rats. Furthermore, we found that treatment with NOS inhibitor N-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) blocked BRB breakdown and prevented the increase in NO formation and induction of NOS activity, as well as the decrease in occluding expression.CONCLUSION: Taken together, these results support the view that NOS-dependent NO production is an important factor that contributes to EMP-induced BRB dysfunction, and suggests that NOS induction may play an important role in BRB breakdown.

 

Hässig M, Jud F, Naegeli H, Kupper J, Spiess B. Prevalence of nuclear cataract in Swiss veal calves and its possible association with mobile telephone antenna base stations. Schweiz Arch Tierheilkd. 151(10):471-478, 2009.

The purpose of this study was to valuate the prevalence of nuclear cataract in veal calves and to elucidate a possible impact by mobile phone base stations (MPBS). For this experiment a cohort study was conducted. A follow-up of the geographical location of each dam and its calf from conception through the fetal period up to slaughter was performed. The first trimester of gestation (organogenesis) was particularly emphasized. The activities of selected protective antioxidants (superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase [GPx]) were assessed in aqueous humor of the eye to evaluate the redox status. Of 253 calves, 79 (32 %) had various degrees of nuclear cataract, but only 9 (3.6 %) calves had severe nuclear cataract. Results demonstrate a relation between the location of veals calves with nuclear cataracts in the first trimester of gestation and the strength of antennas. The number of antennas within 100 to 199 meters was associated with oxidative stress and there was an association between oxidative stress and the distance to the nearest MPBS. Oxidative stress was increased in eyes with cataract (OR per kilometer: 0.80, confidence interval 95 % 0.62,0.93). It has not been shown that the antennas actually affected stress. Hosmer-Lemeshow statistics showed an accuracy of 100 % in negative cases with low radiation, and only 11.11 % accuracy in positive cases with high radiation. This reflects, that there are a lot of other possibilities for nuclear cataract beside MPBS. Further studies on the influence of electromagnetic fields during embryonic development animal or person at risk are indicated.

 

Hässig M, Jud F, Spiess B. [Increased occurrence of nuclear cataract in the calf after erection of a mobile phone base station]. Schweiz Arch Tierheilkd. 154(2):82-86, 2012.[Article in German]

We examined and monitored a dairy farm in which a large number of calves were born with nuclear cataracts after a mobile phone base station had been erected in the vicinity of the barn. Calves showed a 3.5 times higher risk for heavy cataract if born there compared to Swiss average. All usual causes such as infection or poisoning, common in Switzerland, could be excluded. The real cause of the increased incidence of cataracts remains unknown.

 

Jelodar G, Akbari A, Nazifi S. The prophylactic Effect of Vitamin C on Oxidative Stress Indexes in Rat Eyes Following Exposure to Radiofrequency Wave Generated by a BTS Antenna Model. Int J Radiat Biol. 89(2):128-131, 2013.

Purpose: This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of radiofrequency wave (RFW)-induced oxidative stress in the eye and the prophylactic effect of vitamin C on this organ by measuring the antioxidant enzymes activity including: glutathione peroxidase (GPx), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT), and malondialdehyde (MDA). Materials and methods: Thirty-two adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into four experimental groups and treated daily for 45 days as follows: control, vitamin C (L-ascorbic acid 200 mg/kg of body weight/day by gavage), test (exposed to 900 MHz RFW) and the treated group (received vitamin C in addition to exposure to RFW). At the end of the experiment all animals were killed, their eyes were removed and were used for measurement of antioxidant enzymes and MDA activity. Results: The results indicate that exposure to RFW in the test group decreased antioxidant enzymes activity and increased MDA compared with the control groups (P<0.05). In the treated group vitamin C improved antioxidant enzymes activity and reduced MDA compared to the test group (P<0.05). Conclusions: It can be concluded that RFW causes oxidative stress in the eyes and vitamin C improves the antioxidant enzymes activity and decreases MDA.

 

Oxidative Stress

 

Achudume A, Onibere  B, Aina F, Tchokossa P. Induction of oxidative stress in male rats subchronically exposed to electromagnetic fields at non-thermal intensities.  J Electromagnetic Analysis and Applications 2(8), 482-487, 2010.

To investigate the oxidative stress-inducing potential of non-thermal electromagnetic fields in rats. Male Wister rats were exposed to electrical field intensity of 2.3 ± 0.82 µV/m . Exposure was in three forms: continuous waves, or modulated at 900 MHz or modulated GSM-nonDTX. The radio frequency radiation (RFR) was 1800 MHz, specific absorption radiation (SAR) (0.95-3.9 W/kg) for 40 and/or 60 days continuously. Control animals were located > 300 m from base station, while sham control animals were located in a similar environmental conditions, but in the vicinity of a non-functional base station. The rats were assessed for thiobarbituric and reactive species (TBARS), reduced glutathione (GSH) content, catalase activity, glutathione reductase (GR) and glucose residue after 40 and 60 days of exposure. At 40 days, electromagnetic radiation failed to induce any significant alterations. However, at 60 days of exposure various attributes evaluated decreased. The respective decreases in both nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) and Ascorbate- linked lipid peroxidation (LPO) with concomitant diminution in enzymatic antioxidative defense systems resulted in decreased glucose residue. The present studies showed some biochemical changes that may be associated with a prolong exposure to electromagnetic fields and its relationship to the activity of antioxidant system in rat Regular assessment and early detection of antioxidative defense system among people working around the base stations are recommended.

 

Augner C, Hacker GW, Oberfeld G, Florian M, Hitzl W, Hutter J, Pauser G. Effects of Exposure to GSM mobile phone base station signals on salivary cortisol, alpha-amylase, and Immunoglobulin A. Biomed Environ Sci. 23(3):199-207, 2010.

OBJECTIVE: The present study aimed to test whether exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF) emitted by mobile phone base stations may have effects on salivary alpha-amylase, immunoglobulin A (IgA), and cortisol levels. METHODS: Fifty seven participants were randomly allocated to one of three different experimental scenarios (22 participants to scenario 1, 26 to scenario 2, and 9 to scenario 3). Each participant went through five 50-minute exposure sessions. The main RF-EMF source was a GSM-900-MHz antenna located at the outer wall of the building. In scenarios 1 and 2, the first, third, and fifth sessions were “low” (median power flux density 5.2 muW/m(2)) exposure. The second session was “high” (2126.8 muW/m(2)), and the fourth session was “medium” (153.6 muW/m(2)) in scenario 1, and vice versa in scenario 2. Scenario 3 had four “low” exposure conditions, followed by a “high” exposure condition. Biomedical parameters were collected by saliva samples three times a session. Exposure levels were created by shielding curtains. RESULTS: In scenario 3 from session 4 to session 5 (from “low” to “high” exposure), an increase of cortisol was detected, while in scenarios 1 and 2, a higher concentration of alpha-amylase related to the baseline was identified as compared to that in scenario 3. IgA concentration was not significantly related to the exposure.CONCLUSIONS: RF-EMF in considerably lower field densities than ICNIRP-guidelines may influence certain psychobiological stress markers.

 

Marzook EA, Abd El Moneim AE, Elhadary AA. Prootective role of seame oil against mobile phone base station-induced oxidative stress. J Rad Res Appl Sci 7(1):1-6, 2014.

The present study was undertaken to shed the light on the environmental threats associated with the wireless revolution and the health hazards associated with exposure to mobile base station (MBS). Besides, studying the possible protective role of sesame oil (SO) as an antioxidant against oxidative stress. Therefore, the present work was designed to study the effect of chronic exposure to electromagnetic radiations (EMR), produced by a cellular tower for mobile phone and the possible protective role of sesame oil on glutathione reductase (GSH-Rx), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), total testosterone and lipid profile (total cholesterol (Tch), triglycerides (TG), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c) and high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c) in male albino rats. Rats were arranged into four groups: the control unexposed, the exposed untreated and the exposed treated groups (1.5 and 3 ml oil). Exposed groups were subjected to electromagnetic field at frequency of 900 MHz, for 24 h/day for 8 weeks, at the same time both treated groups were supplied with oral injection of sesame oil three times per week. At the end of the experiment, blood samples were obtained for determination of the above mentioned variables in serum. The results obtained revealed that TG and testosterone were raised significantly over control in all groups and the significant increase in oil groups occurred in dose dependent manner. SOD and CAT activities were reduced significantly in exposed rats than control and increased significantly in sesame oil groups as the dose of oil increased. Total cholesterol only showed remarkable reduction in the group treated with 3 ml sesame oil. Also, in this latter group, significant elevation of GSH-Rx was recorded. Changes in serum HDL-c and LDL-c followed an opposite trend in exposed and sesame oil groups reflecting their affectation by EMR or sesame oil. In conclusion, all results of the current study proved that sesame oil can be used as an edible oil to attenuate the oxidative stress which could be yielded as a result of chronic exposure to EMR.

 

Effects on Blood

 

Kismali G, Ozgur E, Guler G, Akcay A, Sel T, Seyhan N. The influence of 1800 MHz GSM-like signals on blood chemistry and oxidative stress in non-pregnant and pregnant rabbits. Int J Radiat Biol. 88(5):414-419, 2012.

PURPOSE:  Environmental electromagnetic fields originate from man-made sources, such as mobile phones and base stations, and have led to increasing public concern about their possible adverse health effects. We aimed to investigate the possible effects of radiofrequency radiation (RFR) generated from these devices on oversensitive animals, such as pregnant rabbits. MATERIALS AND METHODS:  In the present study, the effects of whole body 1800 MHz Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM)-like RFR exposure for 15 min/day for seven days on blood chemistry and lipid peroxidation levels in both non-pregnant and pregnant New Zealand White rabbits were investigated. Thirteen-month-old rabbits were studied in the following four groups: Non-pregnant control, non-pregnant RFR-exposed, pregnant control and pregnant RFR-exposed. RESULTS: Lipid peroxidation, namely malondialdehyde (MDA) levels, did not change after RFR exposure. However, blood chemistry parameters, such as cholesterol (CHO), total protein (TP), albumin (ALB), uric acid, creatinin and creatine kinase (CK) and creatine kinase-myocardial band isoenzyme (CK-MB) changed due to both pregnancy and RFR exposure. CONCLUSION:  Our investigations have been shown that no indication for oxidative stress was detected in the blood of pregnant rabbits upon RF exposure at specific conditions employed in the present study. Minor changes in some blood chemistry parameters were detected but CK-MB and CK increases were found remarkable. Studies on RFR exposure during pregnancy will help establish international standards for the protection of pregnant women from environmental RFR.

 

Yurekli AI, Ozkan M, Kalkan T, Saybasili H, Tuncel H, Atukeren P, Gumustas K, Seker S. GSM Base Station Electromagnetic Radiation and Oxidative Stress in Rats. Electromagn Biol Med. 2006;25(3):177-188, 2006.

The ever increasing use of cellular phones and the increasing number of associated base stations are becoming a widespread source of nonionizing electromagnetic radiation. Some biological effects are likely to occur even at low-level EM fields. In this study, a gigahertz transverse electromagnetic (GTEM) cell was used as an exposure environment for plane wave conditions of far-field free space EM field propagation at the GSM base transceiver station (BTS) frequency of 945 MHz, and effects on oxidative stress in rats were investigated. When EM fields at a power density of 3.67 W/m2 (specific absorption rate = 11.3 mW/kg), which is well below current exposure limits, were applied, MDA (malondialdehyde) level was found to increase and GSH (reduced glutathione) concentration was found to decrease significantly (p < 0.0001). Additionally, there was a less significant (p = 0.0190) increase in SOD (superoxide dismutase) activity under EM exposure.

 

Jin YB, Lee HJ, Seon Lee J, Pack JK, Kim N, Lee YS. One-year, simultaneous combined exposure of CDMA and WCDMA radiofrequency electromagnetic fields to rats.Int J Radiat Biol. 87(4):416-423, 2011.

PURPOSE:  We investigated whether one-year, long-term, simultaneous exposure to code division multiple access (CDMA; 849 MHz) and wideband code division multiple access (WCDMA; 1.95 GHz) radiofrequencies (RF) would induce chronic illness in Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats. MATERIALS AND METHODS:  Two groups of 40 SD rats (50% males and females in sham and exposed groups) were exposed to CDMA and WCDMA RF simultaneously at 2.0 W/kg for 45 min/day (total 4.0 W/kg), 5 days per week for a total of one year. Body and organ weight measurements, urinalysis, haematological and blood biochemical analysis, and histopathological evaluations were performed. RESULTS:  The mortality patterns in male and female rats exposed to RF were compared with those found in gender-matched sham control animals. No significant alteration in body weight was observed with the simultaneous combined RF exposure. Most RF-exposed rats showed no significant alteration, based on urinalysis, haematology, blood biochemistry, or histopathology. However, some altered parameters of the complete blood count and serum chemistry were seen in RF-exposed rats. The total tumour incidence was not different between sham-exposed and RF-exposed animals. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that one-year chronic exposure to CDMA (849 MHz) and WCDMA (1.95 GHz) RF simultaneously at 2.0 W/kg for 45-min RF exposure periods (total, 4 W/kg) did not increase chronic illness in rats, although there were some altered parameters in the complete blood count and serum chemistry.

 

Death

 

Dode AC, Leão MM, Tejo Fde A, Gomes AC, Dode DC, Dode MC, Moreira CW, Condessa VA, Albinatti C, Caiaffa WT. Mortality by neoplasia and cellular telephone base stations in the Belo Horizonte municipality, Minas Gerais state, Brazil.Sci Total Environ. 409(19):3649-3665, 2011.

Pollution caused by the electromagnetic fields (EMFs) of radio frequencies (RF) generated by the telecommunication system is one of the greatest environmental problems of the twentieth century. The purpose of this research was to verify the existence of a spatial correlation between base station (BS) clusters and cases of deaths by neoplasia in the Belo Horizonte municipality, Minas Gerais state, Brazil, from 1996 to 2006 and to measure the human exposure levels to EMF where there is a major concentration of cellular telephone transmitter antennas. A descriptive spatial analysis of the BSs and the cases of death by neoplasia identified in the municipality was performed through an ecological-epidemiological approach, using georeferencing. The database employed in the survey was composed of three data banks: 1. death by neoplasia documented by the Health Municipal Department; 2. BSs documented in ANATEL (“Agência Nacional de Telecomunicações”: ‘Telecommunications National Agency’); and 3. census and demographic city population data obtained from official archives provided by IBGE (“Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística”: ‘Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics’). The results show that approximately 856 BSs were installed through December 2006. Most (39.60%) of the BSs were located in the “Centro-Sul” (‘Central-Southern’) region of the municipality. Between 1996 and 2006, 7191 deaths by neoplasia occurred and within an area of 500 m from the BS, the mortality rate was 34.76 per 10,000 inhabitants. Outside of this area, a decrease in the number of deaths by neoplasia occurred. The greatest accumulated incidence was 5.83 per 1000 in the Central-Southern region and the lowest incidence was 2.05 per 1000 in the Barreiro region. During the environmental monitoring, the largest accumulated electric field measured was 12.4 V/m and the smallest was 0.4 V/m. The largest density power was 40.78 μW/cm(2), and the smallest was 0.04 μW/cm(2).

 

Adang D, Remacle C, Vorst AV Results of a long-term low-level microwave exposure of rats. IEEE Trans Microwave Theor Tech 57: 2488-2497, 2009.

This paper summarizes the results of experimental research on biological effects induced by electromagnetic exposure to low-level microwaves. We exposed four-month-old Wistar albino rats during 21 months to two different microwave frequencies and exposure modes, 2 h a day, seven days a week. In order to assess possible biological effects of microwaves, we selected among others the following parameters: leucocytes, erythrocytes, monocytes, neutrophils, lymphocytes, hemoglobin, mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration, and mortality rate. After three and eight months of exposure, we found a statistically significant difference of about 20% between the 970-MHz continuous wave group and sham-exposed group regarding the monocytes in both considered periods. After 14 and 18 months of exposure, we observed a significant increase in white blood cells and neutrophils of about 15% and 25%, respectively. Lymphocytes fell down after 18 months of exposure with about 15% compared to the sham-exposed group. No other statistically significant differences were found, except for minor changes with little biological significance. The most obvious effect we detected is the increase in mortality rate of the exposed groups with respect to the sham-exposed group after 21 months of exposure at the age of 25 months. This increase even increases when observing rats until the age of 28 months: mortality in exposed groups then reaches almost twice the value observed in the sham-exposed group.

 

Effects on Hormones

 

Eskander EF, Estefan SF, Abd-Rabou AA. How does long term exposure to base stations and mobile phones affect human hormone profiles? Clin Biochem. 45(1-2):157-161, 2012

OBJECTIVES: This study is concerned with assessing the role of exposure to radio frequency radiation (RFR) emitted either from mobiles or base stations and its relations with human’s hormone profiles. DESIGN AND METHODS:  All volunteers’ samples were collected for hormonal analysis. RESULTS:  This study showed significant decrease in volunteers’ ACTH, cortisol, thyroid hormones, prolactin for young females, and testosterone levels. CONCLUSION:  The present study revealed that high RFR effects on pituitary-adrenal axis.

 

Eşmekaya MA, Seyhan N, Omeroğlu S. Pulse modulated 900 MHz radiation induces hypothyroidism and apoptosis in thyroid cells: A light, electron microscopy and immunohistochemical study. Int J Radiat Biol. 86(12):1106-1116, 2010.

Purpose: In the present study we investigated the possible histopathological effects of pulse modulated Radiofrequency (RF) fields on the thyroid gland using light microscopy, electron microscopy and immunohistochemical methods. Materials and methods: Two months old male Wistar rats were exposed to a 900 MHz pulse-modulated RF radiation at a specific absorption rate (SAR) of 1.35 Watt/kg for 20 min/day for three weeks. The RF signals were pulse modulated by rectangular pulses with a repetition frequency of 217 Hz and a duty cycle of 1:8 (pulse width 0.576 ms). To assess thyroid endocrine disruption and estimate the degree of the pathology of the gland, we analysed structural alterations in follicular and colloidal diameters and areas, colloid content of the follicles, and height of the follicular epithelium. Apoptosis was confirmed by Transmission Electron Microscopy and assessing the activites of an initiator (caspase-9) and an effector (caspase-3) caspases that are important markers of cells undergoing apoptosis. Results: Morphological analyses revealed hypothyrophy of the gland in the 900 MHz RF exposure group. The results indicated that thyroid hormone secretion was inhibited by the RF radiation. In addition, we also observed formation of apoptotic bodies and increased caspase-3 and caspase-9 activities in thyroid cells of the rats that were exposed to modulated RF fields. Conclusion: The overall findings indicated that whole body exposure to pulse-modulated RF radiation that is similar to that emitted by global system for mobile communications (GSM) mobile phones can cause pathological changes in the thyroid gland by altering the gland structure and enhancing caspase-dependent pathways of apoptosis.

 

Genetic Effects

 

Gandhi G, Kaur G, Nisar U. A cross-sectional case control study on genetic damage in individuals residing in the vicinity of a mobile phone base station. Electromagn Biol Med. 2014 Jul 9:1-11. [Epub ahead of print]

Mobile phone base stations facilitate good communication, but the continuously emitting radiations from these stations have raised health concerns. Hence in this study, genetic damage using the single cell gel electrophoresis (comet) assay was assessed in peripheral blood leukocytes of individuals residing in the vicinity of a mobile phone base station and comparing it to that in healthy controls. The power density in the area within 300 m from the base station exceeded the permissive limits and was significantly (p = 0.000) higher compared to the area from where control samples were collected. The study participants comprised 63 persons with residences near a mobile phone tower, and 28 healthy controls matched for gender, age, alcohol drinking and occupational sub-groups. Genetic damage parameters of DNA migration length, damage frequency (DF) and damage index were significantly (p = 0.000) elevated in the sample group compared to respective values in healthy controls. The female residents (n = 25) of the sample group had significantly (p = 0.004) elevated DF than the male residents (n = 38). The linear regression analysis further revealed daily mobile phone usage, location of residence and power density as significant predictors of genetic damage. The genetic damage evident in the participants of this study needs to be addressed against future disease-risk, which in addition to neurodegenerative disorders, may lead to cancer.

 

Fucic A, Garaj-Vrhovac V, Skara M, Dimitrovic B, X-rays, microwaves and vinyl chloride monomer: their clastogenic and aneugenic activity, using the micronucleus assay on human lymphocytes. Mutat Res 282(4):265-271, 1992.

Chromosome aberration assays, sister-chromatid exchange techniques and micronucleus assays are commonly used methods for biomonitoring genetic material damaged by chemical or physical agents. On the other hand, their aneugenic activity, which can lead to hypoploidy and may also be associated with carcinogenesis, has not been thoroughly investigated. In our study we chose the micronucleus assay with a new mathematical approach to separate clastogenic from aneugenic activity of three well-known mutagens (vinyl chloride monomer, X-rays and microwaves) on the genome of human somatic cells. The comparison of frequencies of size distribution of micronuclei in the lymphocytes of humans exposed to each of these three mutagens showed that X-rays and microwaves were preferentially clastogens while vinyl chloride monomer showed aneugenic activity as well. Microwaves possess some mutagenic characteristics typical of chemical mutagens.

 

Esmekaya MA, Aytekin E, Ozgur E, Güler G, Ergun MA, Omeroğlu S, Seyhan N.

Mutagenic and morphologic impacts of 1.8GHz radiofrequency radiation on human peripheral blood lymphocytes (hPBLs) and possible protective role of pre-treatment with Ginkgo biloba (EGb 761). Sci Total Environ. 410-411:59-64, 2011.

The mutagenic and morphologic effects of 1.8GHz Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM) modulated RF (radiofrequency) radiation alone and in combination with Ginkgo biloba (EGb 761) pre-treatment in human peripheral blood lymphocytes (hPBLs) were investigated in this study using Sister Chromatid Exchange (SCE) and electron microscopy. Cell viability was assessed with 3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) reduction assay. The lymphocyte cultures were exposed to GSM modulated RF radiation at 1.8GHz for 6, 8, 24 and 48h with and without EGb 761. We observed morphological changes in pulse-modulated RF radiated lymphocytes. Longer exposure periods led to destruction of organelle and nucleus structures. Chromatin change and the loss of mitochondrial crista occurred in cells exposed to RF for 8h and 24h and were more pronounced in cells exposed for 48h. Cytoplasmic lysis and destruction of membrane integrity of cells and nuclei were also seen in 48h RF exposed cells. There was a significant increase (p<0.05) in SCE frequency in RF exposed lymphocytes compared to sham controls. EGb 761 pre-treatment significantly decreased SCE from RF radiation. RF radiation also inhibited cell viability in a time dependent manner. The inhibitory effects of RF radiation on the growth of lymphoctes were marked in longer exposure periods. EGb 761 pre-treatment significantly increased cell viability in RF+EGb 761 treated groups at 8 and 24h when compared to RF exposed groups alone. The results of our study showed that RF radiation affects cell morphology, increases SCE and inhibits cell proliferation. However, EGb 761 has a protective role against RF induced mutagenity. We concluded that RF radiation induces chromosomal damage in hPBLs but this damage may be reduced by EGb 761 pre-treatment.

 

Kim JY, Hong SY, Lee YM, Yu SA, Koh WS, Hong JR, Son T, Chang SK, Lee M. In vitro assessment of clastogenicity of mobile-phone radiation (835 MHz) using the alkaline comet assay and chromosomal aberration test. Environ Toxicol. 23(3):319-327, 2008.

Recently we demonstrated that 835-MHz radiofrequency radiation electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF) neither affected the reverse mutation frequency nor accelerated DNA degradation in vitro. Here, two kinds of cytogenetic endpoints were further investigated on mammalian cells exposed to 835-MHz RF-EMF (the most widely used communication frequency band in Korean CDMA mobile phone networks) alone and in combination with model clastogens: in vitro alkaline comet assay and in vitro chromosome aberration (CA) test. No direct cytogenetic effect of 835-MHz RF-EMF was found in the in vitro CA test. The combined exposure of the cells to RF-EMF in the presence of ethylmethanesulfonate (EMS) revealed a weak and insignificant cytogenetic effect when compared to cells exposed to EMS alone in CA test. Also, the comet assay results to evaluate the ability of RF-EMF alone to damage DNA were nearly negative, although showing a small increase in tail moment. However, the applied RF-EMF had potentiation effect in comet assay when administered in combination with model clastogens (cyclophosphamide or 4-nitroquinoline 1-oxide). Thus, our results imply that we cannot confidently exclude any possibility of an increased risk of genetic damage, with important implications for the possible health effects of exposure to 835-MHz electromagnetic fields.

 

Nikolova T, Czyz J, Rolletschek A, Blyszczuk P, Fuchs J, Jovtchev G, Schuderer J, Kuster N, Wobus AM. Electromagnetic fields affect transcript levels of apoptosis-related genes in embryonic stem cell-derived neural progenitor cells. ASEB J. 19(12):1686-1688, 2005.

Mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells were used as an experimental model to study the effects of electromagnetic fields (EMF). ES-derived nestin-positive neural progenitor cells were exposed to extremely low frequency EMF simulating power line magnetic fields at 50 Hz (ELF-EMF) and to radiofrequency EMF simulating the Global System for Mobile Communication (GSM) signals at 1.71 GHz (RF-EMF). Following EMF exposure, cells were analyzed for transcript levels of cell cycle regulatory, apoptosis-related, and neural-specific genes and proteins; changes in proliferation; apoptosis; and cytogenetic effects. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis revealed that ELF-EMF exposure to ES-derived neural cells significantly affected transcript levels of the apoptosis-related bcl-2, bax, and cell cycle regulatory “growth arrest DNA damage inducible” GADD45 genes, whereas mRNA levels of neural-specific genes were not affected. RF-EMF exposure of neural progenitor cells resulted in down-regulation of neural-specific Nurr1 and in up-regulation of bax and GADD45 mRNA levels. Short-term RF-EMF exposure for 6 h, but not for 48 h, resulted in a low and transient increase of DNA double-strand breaks. No effects of ELF- and RF-EMF on mitochondrial function, nuclear apoptosis, cell proliferation, and chromosomal alterations were observed. We may conclude that EMF exposure of ES-derived neural progenitor cells transiently affects the transcript level of genes related to apoptosis and cell cycle control. However, these responses are not associated with detectable changes of cell physiology, suggesting compensatory mechanisms at the translational and posttranslational level.

 

Maes A, Collier M, Slaets D, Verschaeve L, 954 MHz microwaves enhance the mutagenic properties of mitomycin C. Environ Mol Mutagen 28(1):26-30, 1996.

This paper focuses on the combined effects of microwaves from mobile communication frequencies and a chemical DNA damaging agent mitomycin C (MMC). The investigation was performed in vitro by exposing whole blood samples to a 954 MHz emitting antenna from a GSM (Global System for Mobile Communication) base station, followed by lymphocyte cultivation in the presence of MMC. A highly reproducible synergistic effect was observed as based on the frequencies of sister chromatid exchanges in metaphase figures.

 

Fritze K, Wiessner C, Kuster N, Sommer C, Gass P, Hermann DM, Kiessling M,Hossmann KA, Effect of global system for mobile communication microwave exposure on the genomic response of the rat brain. Neuroscience 81(3):627-639, 1997.

The acute effect of global system for mobile communication (GSM) microwave exposure on the genomic response of the central nervous system was studied in rats by measuring changes in the messenger RNAs of hsp70, the transcription factor genes c-fos and c-jun and the glial structural gene GFAP using in situ hybridization histochemistry. Protein products of transcription factors, stress proteins and marker proteins of astroglial and microglial activation were assessed by immunocytochemistry. Cell proliferation was evaluated by bromodeoxyuridine incorporation. A special GSM radiofrequency test set, connected to a commercial cellular phone operating in the discontinuous transmission mode, was used to simulate GSM exposure. The study was conducted at time averaged and brain averaged specific absorption rates of 0.3 W/kg (GSM exposure), 1.5 W/kg (GSM exposure) and 7.5 W/kg (continuous wave exposure), respectively. Immediately after exposure, in situ hybridization revealed slight induction of hsp70 messenger RNA in the cerebellum and hippocampus after 7.5 W/kg exposure, but not at lower intensities. A slightly increased expression of c-fos messenger RNA was observed in the cerebellum, neocortex and piriform cortex of all groups subjected to immobilization, but no differences were found amongst different exposure conditions. C-jun and GFAP messenger RNAs did not increase in any of the experimental groups. 24 h after exposure, immunocytochemical analysis of FOS and JUN proteins (c-FOS, FOS B, c-JUN JUN B, JUN D), of HSP70 or of KROX-20 and -24 did not reveal any alterations. Seven days after exposure, neither increased cell proliferation nor altered expression of astroglial and microglial marker proteins were observed. In conclusion, acute high intensity microwave exposure of immobilized rats may induce some minor stress response but does not result in lasting adaptive or reactive changes of the brain.

 

Baohong Wang, Jiliang H, Lifen J, Deqiang L, Wei Z, Jianlin L, Hongping D. Studying the synergistic damage effects induced by 1.8GHz radiofrequency field radiation (RFR) with four chemical mutagens on human lymphocyte DNA using comet assay in vitro. Mutat Res. 578(1-2):149-157, 2005.

The aim of this investigation was to study the synergistic DNA damage effects in human lymphocytes induced by 1.8GHz radiofrequency field radiation (RFR, SAR of 3W/kg) with four chemical mutagens, i.e. mitomycin C (MMC, DNA crosslinker), bleomycin (BLM, radiomimetic agent), methyl methanesulfonate (MMS, alkylating agent), and 4-nitroquinoline-1-oxide (4NQO, UV-mimetic agent). The DNA damage of lymphocytes exposed to RFR and/or with chemical mutagens was detected at two incubation time (0 or 21h) after treatment with comet assay in vitro. Three combinative exposure ways were used. Cells were exposed to RFR and chemical mutagens for 2 and 3h, respectively. Tail length (TL) and tail moment (TM) were utilized as DNA damage indexes. The results showed no difference of DNA damage indexes between RFR group and control group at 0 and 21h incubation after exposure (P>0.05). There were significant difference of DNA damage indexes between MMC group and RFR+MMC co-exposure group at 0 and 21h incubation after treatment (P<0.01). Also the significant difference of DNA damage indexes between 4NQO group and RFR+4NQO co-exposure group at 0 and 21h incubation after treatment was observed (P<0.05 or P<0.01). The DNA damage in RFR+BLM co-exposure groups and RFR+MMS co-exposure groups was not significantly increased, as compared with corresponding BLM and MMS groups (P>0.05). The experimental results indicated 1.8GHz RFR (SAR, 3W/kg) for 2h did not induce the human lymphocyte DNA damage effects in vitro, but could enhance the human lymphocyte DNA damage effects induced by MMC and 4NQO. The synergistic DNA damage effects of 1.8GHz RFR with BLM or MMS were not obvious.

 

Baohong W, Lifen J, Lanjuan L, Jianlin L, Deqiang L, Wei Z, Jiliang H.Evaluating the combinative effects on human lymphocyte DNA damage induced by ultraviolet ray C plus 1.8GHz microwaves using comet assay in vitro.Toxicology. 232(3):311-316, 2007.

The objective of this study was to observe whether 1.8GHz microwaves (MW) (SAR, 3 W/kg) exposure can influence human lymphocyte DNA damage induced by ultraviolet ray C (UVC). The lymphocytes, which were from three young healthy donors, were exposed to 254 nm UVC at the doses of 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 J m(-2), respectively. The lymphocytes were irradiated by 1.8GHz MW (SAR, 3 W/kg) for 0, 1.5 and 4 h. The combinative exposure of UVC plus MW was conducted. The treated cells were incubated for 0, 1.5 and 4 h. Finally, comet assay was used to measure DNA damage of above treated lymphocytes. The results indicated that the difference of DNA damage induced between MW group and control group was not significant (P>0.05). The MTLs induced by UVC were 1.71+/-0.09, 2.02+/-0.08, 2.27+/-0.17, 2.27+/-0.06, 2.25+/-0.12, 2.24+/-0.11 microm, respectively, which were significantly higher than that (0.96+/-0.05 microm) of control (P<0.01). MTLs of some sub-groups in combinative exposure groups at 1.5-h incubation were significantly lower that those of corresponding UVC sub-groups (P<0.01 or P<0.05). However, MTLs of some sub-groups in combinative exposure groups at 4-h incubation were significantly higher that those of corresponding UVC sub-groups (P<0.01 or P<0.05). In this experiment it was found that 1.8GHz (SAR, 3 W/kg) MW exposure for 1.5 and 4 h did not enhance significantly human lymphocyte DNA damage, but could reduce and increase DNA damage of human lymphocytes induced by UVC at 1.5-h and 4-h incubation, respectively.

 

Canseven AG, Esmekaya MA, Kayhan H, Tuysuz MZ, Seyhan N. Effects of microwave exposure and Gemcitabine treatment on apoptotic activity in Burkitt’s lymphoma (Raji) cells. Electromagn Biol Med. 2014 Jun 5:1-5. [Epub ahead of print]

We investigated the effects of 1.8 MHz Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM)-modulated microwave (MW) radiation on apoptotic level and cell viability of Burkitt’s lymphoma (Raji) cells with or without Gemcitabine, which exhibits cell phase specificity, primarily killing cells undergoing DNA synthesis (S-phase). Raji cells were exposed to 1.8 GHz GSM-modulated MW radiation at a specific absorption rate (SAR) of 0.350 W/kg in a CO2 incubator. The duration of the exposure was 24 h. The amount of apoptotic cells was analyzed using Annexin V-FITC and propidium iodide (PI) staining with flow cytometer. The apoptotic activity of MW exposed Raji cells was increased significantly. In addition, cell viability of exposed samples was significantly decreased. Combined exposure of MW and Gemcitabine increased the amount of apoptotic cells than MW radiation alone. Moreover, viability of MW + Gemcitabine exposed cells was lower than that of cells exposed only to MW. These results demonstrated that MW radiation exposure and Gemcitabine treatment have a synergistic effect on apoptotic activity of Raji cells.

 

Effects on Glands

 

Aydogan F, Unlu I, Aydin E, Yumusak N, Devrim E, Samim EE, Ozgur E, Unsal V, Tomruk A, Ozturk GG, Seyhan N. The effect of 2100 MHz radiofrequency radiation of a 3G mobile phone on the parotid gland of rats. Am J Otolaryngol. 2014 Oct 5. pii: S0196-0709(14)00207-5. doi: 10.1016/j.amjoto.2014.10.001. [Epub ahead of print]

 

PURPOSE: We aimed to evaluate the effect of 2100 MHz radiofrequency radiation on the parotid gland of rats in short and relatively long terms. MATERIAL AND METHODS:  Thirty Wistar albino rats were divided into four groups. Groups A and B served as the control groups (for 10 days and 40 days, respectively), and each group included six rats. Groups C and D were composed of nine rats each, and they were the exposure groups. The rats were exposed to 2100 MHz radiofrequency radiation emitted by a generator, simulating a third generation mobile phone for 6 hours/day, 5 days/week, for 10 or 40 days. Following exposure, the rats were sacrificed and parotid glands were removed. Histopathological and biochemical examinations were performed. RESULTS:  Although there were no histopathological changes in the control groups except for two animals in group A and three animals in group B, the exposure groups C (10 days) and D (40 days) showed numerous histopathological changes regarding salivary gland damage including acinar epithelial cells, interstitial space, ductal system, vascular system, nucleus, amount of cytoplasm and variations in cell size. The histopathological changes were more prominent in group D compared to group C. There was statistically significant different parameter regarding variation in cell size between the groups B and D (p=0.036). CONCLUSION: The parotid gland of rats showed numerous histopathological changes after exposure to 2100 MHz radiofrequency radiation, both in the short and relatively long terms. Increased exposure duration led to an increase in the histopathological changes.

 

Effects on Animals and Environment

 

Panagopoulos DJ, Chavdoula ED, Margaritis LH. Bioeffects of mobile telephony radiation in relation to its intensity or distance from the antenna. Int J Radiat Biol. 86(5):345-357, 2010.

PURPOSE: To examine the bioactivity of GSM 900 and 1800 (Global System for Mobile Telecommunications) radiations, in relation to the distance from the antenna or to the radiation-field intensities. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Drosophila melanogaster adult insects were exposed to the radiation of a GSM 900/1800 mobile phone antenna at different distances ranging from 0 to 100 cm, and the effect on their reproductive capacity and cell death induction in the gonads by the use of TUNEL (Terminal deoxynucleotide transferase dUTP Nick End Labeling) assay, was studied. RESULTS: These radiations/fields decreased the reproductive capacity by cell death induction, at all the different distances tested. The effect diminished with the distance/decreasing intensities. An increased bioactivity ‘window’ was revealed at distances of 20-30 cm from the mobile phone antenna, (radiation intensity around 10 microW/cm(2)) where the effect became highest, in relation to smaller or longer distances. The effect diminished considerably for distances longer than 40-50 cm and became not evident for distances longer than 1 m or radiation intensities smaller than 1 microW/cm(2). CONCLUSIONS: GSM bioactivity is highest for intensities down to less than 10 microW/cm(2) and still evident until 1 microW/cm(2) exhibiting ‘window’ effects

 

Loscher W, Kas G, Extraordinary behavior disorders in cows in proximity to transmission stations. Der Praktische Tierarz 79:437-444, 1998. (Article in German)

In addition to reduction of milk yield and increased health problems, behavioral abnormalities were observed over a period of two years in a herd of diary cows maintained in close proximity to a TV and cell phone transmitting antenna. Evaluation of possible factors which could explain the abnormalities in the live stock did not disclose any factors other than the high-frequency electromagnetic fields. An experiment in which a cow with abnormal behavior was brought to a stable 20 km away from the antenna resulted in a complete normalization of the cow within five days, whereas symptoms returned when the cow was brought back to the stable nearby the antenna. In view of the previous described effects of electromagnetic fields, it might be possible that the observed abnormalities in cows are related to electromagnetic field exposure. (power densities measured 0.02-7 mW/m2).

 

Koldayev VM, Shchepin YV, Effects of electromagnetic radiation on embryos of sea-urchins. Bioelectrochem Bioenerg 43:161-164, 1997.

Electromagnetic radiation (EMR) causes a decrease in the number of fertilized eggs and an increase in the number of zygotes with abnormal fertilization envelopes in sea-urchins. The microstructural impairments of the cellular surface, the increase of lipid peroxidation and the changes of amino acid metabolism show that the impairments of the development of embryos exposed to EMR are caused by the damages of the membrane structures.

 

Cammaerts MC, De Doncker P, Patris X, Bellens F, Rachidi Z, Cammaerts D. GSM 900 MHz radiation inhibits ants’ association between food sites and encountered cues. Electromagn Biol Med. 31(2):151-165, 2012.

The kinetics of the acquisition and loss of the use of olfactory and visual cues were previously obtained in six experimental colonies of the ant Myrmica sabuleti meinert 1861, under normal conditions. In the present work, the same experiments were conducted on six other naive identical colonies of M. sabuleti, under electromagnetic radiation similar to those surrounding GSM and communication masts. In this situation, no association between food and either olfactory or visual cues occurred. After a recovery period, the ants were able to make such an association but never reached the expected score. Such ants having acquired a weaker olfactory or visual score and still undergoing olfactory or visual training were again submitted to electromagnetic waves. Not only did they lose all that they had memorized, but also they lost it in a few hours instead of in a few days (as under normal conditions when no longer trained). They kept no visual memory at all (instead of keeping 10% of it as they normally do). The impact of GSM 900 MHz radiation was greater on the visual memory than on the olfactory one. These communication waves may have such a disastrous impact on a wide range of insects using olfactory and/or visual memory, i.e., on bees.

 

Senavirathna MD, Asaeda T, Thilakarathne BL, Kadono H. Nanometer-scale elongation rate fluctuations in the Myriophyllum aquaticum (Parrot feather) stem were altered by radio-frequency electromagnetic radiation. Plant Signal Behav. 2014 Mar 26;9(3). pii: e28590. [Epub ahead of print]
The emission of radio-frequency electromagnetic radiation (EMR) by various wireless communication base stations has increased in recent years. While there is wide concern about the effects of EMR on humans and animals, the influence of EMR on plants is not well understood. In this study, we investigated the effect of EMR on the growth dynamics of Myriophyllum aquaticum (Parrot feather) by measuring the nanometric elongation rate fluctuation (NERF) using a statistical interferometry technique. Plants were exposed to 2 GHz EMR at a maximum of 1.42 Wm-2 for 1 h. After continuous exposure to EMR, M. aquaticum plants exhibited a statistically significant 51 ± 16% reduction in NERF standard deviation. Temperature observations revealed that EMR exposure did not cause dielectric heating of the plants. Therefore, the reduced NERF was due to a non-thermal effect caused by EMR exposure. The alteration in NERF continued for at least 2.5 h after EMR exposure and no significant recovery was found in post-EMR NERF during the experimental period.

 

Balmori A. Mobile Phone Mast Effects on Common Frog (Rana temporaria) Tadpoles: The City Turned into a Laboratory. Electromagn Biol Med. 29(1-2):31-35, 2010.

An experiment has been made exposing eggs and tadpoles of the common frog (Rana temporaria) to electromagnetic radiation from several mobile (cell) phone antennae located at a distance of 140 meters. The experiment lasted two months, from the egg phase until an advanced phase of tadpole prior to metamorphosis. Measurements of electric field intensity (radiofrequencies and microwaves) in V/m obtained with three different devices were 1.8 to 3.5 V/m. In the exposed group (n = 70), low coordination of movements, an asynchronous growth, resulting in both big and small tadpoles, and a high mortality (90%) was observed. Regarding the control group (n = 70) under the same conditions but inside a Faraday cage, the coordination of movements was normal, the development was synchronous, and a mortality of 4.2% was obtained. These results indicate that radiation emitted by phone masts in a real situation may affect the development and may cause an increase in mortality of exposed tadpoles. This research may have huge implications for the natural world, which is now exposed to high microwave radiation levels from a multitude of phone masts.

 

Balode, Z,  Assessment of radio-frequency electromagnetic radiation by the micronucleus test in bovine peripheral erythrocytes. Sci Total Environ 180(1):81-85, 1996.

Previous bioindicative studies in the Skrunda Radio Location Station area have focused on the somatic influence of electromagnetic radiation on plants, but it is also important to study genetic effects. We have chosen cows as test animals for cytogenetical evaluation because they live in the same general exposure area as humans, are confined to specific locations and are chronically exposed to radiation. Blood samples were obtained from female Latvian Brown cows from a farm close to and in front of the Skrunda Radar and from cows in a control area. A simplified alternative to the Schiff method of DNA staining for identification of micronuclei in peripheral erythrocytes was applied. Microscopically, micronuclei in peripheral blood erythrocytes were round in shape and exhibited a strong red colour. They are easily detectable as the only coloured bodies in the uncoloured erythrocytes. From each individual animal 2000 erythrocytes were examined at a magnification of x 1000 for the presence of micronuclei. The counting of micronuclei in peripheral erythrocytes gave low average incidences, 0.6 per 1000 in the exposed group and 0.1 per 1000 in the control, but statistically significant (P < 0.01) differences were found in the frequency distribution between the control and exposed groups.

 

Effects on Skin

 

Cam ST, Seyhan N, Kavaklı C, Celikbıçak O. Effects of 900 MHz Radiofrequency Radiation on Skin Hydroxyproline Contents. Cell Biochem Biophys. 2014 Apr 24. [Epub ahead of print]

The present study aimed to investigate the possible effect of pulse-modulated radiofrequency radiation (RFR) on rat skin hydroxyproline content, since skin is the first target of external electromagnetic fields. Skin hydroxyproline content was measured using liquid chromatography mass spectrometer method. Two months old male wistar rats were exposed to a 900 MHz pulse-modulated RFR at an average whole body specific absorption rate (SAR) of 1.35 W/kg for 20 min/day for 3 weeks. The radiofrequency (RF) signals were pulse modulated by rectangular pulses with a repetition frequency of 217 Hz and a duty cycle of 1:8 (pulse width 0.576 ms). A skin biopsy was taken at the upper part of the abdominal costa after the exposure. The data indicated that whole body exposure to a pulse-modulated RF radiation that is similar to that emitted by the global system for mobile communications (GSM) mobile phones caused a statistically significant increase in the skin hydroxyproline level (p = 0.049, Mann-Whitney U test). Under our experimental conditions, at a SAR less than the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection safety limit recommendation, there was evidence that GSM signals could alter hydroxyproline concentration in the rat skin.

 

 

Effects on Protein

 

Hässig M, Wullschleger M, Naegeli HP, Kupper J, Spiess B, Kuster N, Capstick M, Murbach M. Influence of non ionizing radiation of base stations on the activity of redox proteins in bovines. BMC Vet Res. 2014 Jun 19;10(1):136. [Epub ahead of print]
BACKGROUND: The influence of electromagnetic fields on the health of humans and animals is still an intensively discussed and scientifically investigated issue (Prakt Tierarzt 11:15-20, 2003; Umwelt Medizin Gesellschaft 17:326-332, 2004; J Toxicol Environment Health, Part B 12:572-597, 2009). We are surrounded by numerous electromagnetic fields of variable strength, coming from electronic equipment and its power cords, from high-voltage power lines and from antennas for radio, television and mobile communication. Particularly the latter cause’s controversy, as everyone likes to have good mobile reception at anytime and anywhere, whereas nobody wants to have such a base station antenna in their proximity. RESULTS:  In this experiment, the non-ionizing radiation (NIR) has resulted in changes in the enzyme activities. Certain enzymes were disabled, others enabled by NIR. Furthermore, individual behavior patterns were observed. While certain cows reacted to NIR, others did not react at all, or even inversely. CONCLUSION: The present results coincide with the information from the literature, according to which NIR leads to changes in redox proteins, and that there are individuals who are sensitive to radiation and others that are not. However, the latter could not be distinctly attributed – there are cows that react clearly with one enzyme while they do not react with another enzyme at all, or even the inverse. The study approach of testing ten cows each ten times during three phases has proven to be appropriate. Future studies should however set the post-exposure phase later on.

 

Effects on Immune Function

 

Li CY, Liao MH, Lin CW, Tsai WS, Huang CC, Tang TK. Inhibitory Effects of Microwave Radiation on LPS-Induced NFκB Expression in THP-1 Monocytes. Chin J Physiol. 55(6):421-427, 2012.

Microwave radiations can be encountered regularly in daily lives. When WHO announced that microwave radiations were a kind of environmental energy which interfere with the physiological functions of the human body, great concerns have been raised over the damages microwave frequencies can do to human physiology. The immunological performance and the activities of the cellular inflammatory factor NFκB have been closely related in monocyte. Due to the effect of phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) on THP-1 monocytes, THP-1 monocytes would differentiate into macrophages and would then react with lipopolysaccharides (LPS), and the amount of NFκB increased in the THP-1 monocytes. Expression of cytokine is affected when cells are exposed to a frequency of 2450 MHz and at 900 W. Thus, in our experiments, an observation was made when THP-1 monocytes were stimulated with PMA and LPS to differentiate into macrophage, the amount of NFκB in cells increased exponentially, and the levels of NFκB expression were decreased by the exposure of microwave radiation. In conclusion, microwave radiations were found to inhibit the activity functions of THP-1 monocytes stimulated with PMA and LPS.

 

Electro Hypersensitivity

 

Nordin S, Neely G, Olsson D, Sandström M. Odor and Noise Intolerance in Persons with Self-Reported Electromagnetic Hypersensitivity.  Int J Environ Res Public Health. 11(9):8794-8805, 2014.
Lack of confirmation of symptoms attributed to electromagnetic fields (EMF) and triggered by EMF exposure has highlighted the role of individual factors. Prior observations indicate intolerance to other types of environmental exposures among persons with electromagnetic hypersensitivity (EHS). This study assessed differences in odor and noise intolerance between persons with EHS and healthy controls by use of subscales and global measures of the Chemical Sensitivity Scale (CSS) and the Noise Sensitivity Scale (NSS). The EHS group scored significantly higher than the controls on all CSS and NSS scales. Correlation coefficients between CSS and NSS scores ranged from 0.60 to 0.65 across measures. The findings suggest an association between EHS and odor and noise intolerance, encouraging further investigation of individual factors for understanding EMF-related symptoms.

 

RF Levels in Cities

 

Urbinello D, Huss A, Beekhuizen J, Vermeulen R, Röösli M. Use of portable exposure meters for comparing mobile phone base station radiation in different types of areas in the cities of Basel and Amsterdam. Sci Total Environ. 468-469:1028-1033, 2014.

 

BACKGROUND: Radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF) are highly variable and differ considerably within as well as between areas. Exposure assessment studies characterizing spatial and temporal variation are limited so far. Our objective was to evaluate sources of data variability and the repeatability of daily measurements using portable exposure meters (PEMs). METHODS:  Data were collected at 12 days between November 2010 and January 2011 with PEMs in four different types of urban areas in the cities of Basel (BSL) and Amsterdam (AMS). RESULTS:  Exposure from mobile phone base stations ranged from 0.30 to 0.53 V/m in downtown and business areas and in residential areas from 0.09 to 0.41 V/m. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) demonstrated that measurements from various days were highly reproducible (measurement duration of approximately 30 min) with only 0.6% of the variance of all measurements from mobile phone base station radiation being explained by the measurement day and only 0.2% by the measurement time (morning, noon, afternoon), whereas type of area (30%) and city (50%) explained most of the data variability. CONCLUSIONS:  We conclude that mobile monitoring of exposure from mobile phone base station radiation with PEMs is useful due to the high repeatability of mobile phone base station exposure levels, despite the high spatial variation.

 

Urbinello D, Joseph W, Verloock L, Martens L, Röösli M. Temporal trends of radio-frequency electromagnetic field (RF-EMF) exposure in everyday environments across European cities. Environ Res. 2014 Aug 12;134C:134-142. doi: 10.1016/j.envres.2014.07.003. [Epub ahead of print]

BACKGROUND: The rapid development and increased use of wireless telecommunication technologies led to a substantial change of radio-frequency electromagnetic field (RF-EMF) exposure in the general population but little is known about temporal trends of RF-EMF in our everyday environment. OBJECTIVES: The objective of our study is to evaluate temporal trends of RF-EMF exposure levels in different microenvironments of three European cities using a common measurement protocol. METHODS:  We performed measurements in the cities of Basel (Switzerland), Ghent and Brussels (Belgium) during one year, between April 2011 and March 2012. RF-EMF exposure in 11 different frequency bands ranging from FM (Frequency Modulation, 88MHz) to WLAN (Wireless Local Area Network, 2.5GHz) was quantified with portable measurement devices (exposimeters) in various microenvironments: outdoor areas (residential areas, downtown and suburb), public transports (train, bus and tram or metro rides) and indoor places (airport, railway station and shopping centers). Measurements were collected every 4s during 10-50min per environment and measurement day. Linear temporal trends were analyzed by mixed linear regression models. RESULTS:  Highest total RF-EMF exposure levels occurred in public transports (all public transports combined) with arithmetic mean values of 0.84V/m in Brussels, 0.72V/m in Ghent, and 0.59V/m in Basel. In all outdoor areas combined, mean exposure levels were 0.41V/m in Brussels, 0.31V/m in Ghent and 0.26V/m in Basel. Within one year, total RF-EMF exposure levels in all outdoor areas in combination increased by 57.1% (p<0.001) in Basel by 20.1% in Ghent (p=0.053) and by 38.2% (p=0.012) in Brussels. Exposure increase was most consistently observed in outdoor areas due to emissions from mobile phone base stations. In public transports RF-EMF levels tended also to increase but mostly without statistical significance. DISCUSSION:  An increase of RF-EMF exposure levels has been observed between April 2011 and March 2012 in various microenvironments of three European cities. Nevertheless, exposure levels were still far below regulatory limits of each country. A continuous monitoring is needed to identify high exposure areas and to anticipate critical development of RF-EMF exposure at public places.

 

Estenberg J, Augustsson T. Extensive frequency selective measurements of radiofrequency fields in outdoor environments performed with a novel mobile monitoring system. Bioelectromagnetics. 2013 Dec 27. doi: 10.1002/bem.21830. [Epub ahead of print]

A novel, car based, measuring system for estimation of general public outdoor exposure to radiofrequency fields (RF) has been developed. The system enables fast, large area, isotropic spectral measurements with a bandwidth covering the frequency range of 30 MHz to 3 GHz. Measurements have shown that complete mapping of a town with 15000 inhabitants and a path length of 115 km is possible to perform within 1 day. The measured areas were chosen to represent typical rural, urban and city areas of Sweden. The data sets consist of more than 70000 measurements. All measurements were performed during the daytime. The median power density was 16 µW/m2 in rural areas, 270 µW/m2 in urban areas, and 2400 µW/m2 in city areas. In urban and city areas, base stations for mobile phones were clearly the dominating sources of exposure.

 

Effects on Water

 

Hinrikus H, Lass J, Karai D, Pilt K, Bachmann M. Microwave effect on diffusion: a possible mechanism for non-thermal effect. Electromagn Biol Med. 23:1-7, 2014.

In this study, we assume that microwave radiation affects hydrogen bonding between dipolar water molecules and through that diffusion in water at constant temperature. The experimental study was performed on the setup of two identical reservoirs filled with pure water and 0.9% NaCl solution and connected by a thin tube. Alterations of NaCl concentration in the reservoir initially filled with pure water were measured using the resistance of the solution as an indicator. The applied 450 MHz continuous-wave microwave field had the maximal specific absorption rate of 0.4 W/kg on the connecting tube. The standard deviation of water temperature in the setup was 0.02 °C during an experiment. Our experimental data demonstrated that microwave exposure makes faster the process of diffusion in water. The time required for reduction of initial resistance of the solution by 10% was 1.7 times shorter with microwave. This result is consistent with the proposed mechanism of low-level microwave effect: microwave radiation, rotating dipolar water molecules, causes high-frequency alterations of hydrogen bonds between water molecules, thereby affects its viscosity and makes faster diffusion.

 

RF Levels From Cell Towers

 

Martinez-Burdalo M, Martin A, Anguiano M, Villar R. On the safety assessment of human exposure in the proximity of cellular communications base-station antennas at 900, 1800 and 2170 MHz. Phys Med Biol. 50(17):4125-4137, 2005.

In this work, the procedures for safety assessment in the close proximity of cellular communications base-station antennas at three different frequencies (900, 1800 and 2170 MHz) are analysed. For each operating frequency, we have obtained and compared the distances to the antenna from the exposure places where electromagnetic fields are below reference levels and the distances where the specific absorption rate (SAR) values in an exposed person are below the basic restrictions, according to the European safety guidelines. A high-resolution human body model has been located, in front of each base-station antenna as a worst case, at different distances, to compute whole body averaged SAR and maximum 10 g averaged SAR inside the exposed body. The finite-difference time-domain method has been used for both electromagnetic fields and SAR calculations. This paper shows that, for antenna-body distances in the near zone of the antenna, the fact that averaged field values be below the reference levels could, at certain frequencies, not guarantee guidelines compliance based on basic restrictions.

 

Hu J, Lu Y, Zhang H, Xie H, Yang X. [Level of microwave radiation from mobile phone base stations built in residential districts] Wei Sheng Yan Jiu. 38(6):712-716, 2009. [Article in Chinese]

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the condition of microwave radiation pollution from mobile phone base station built in populated area. METHODS: Random selected 18 residential districts where had base station and 10 residential districts where had no base stations. A TES-92 electromagnetic radiation monitor were used to measure the intensity of microwave radiation in external and internal living environment. RESULTS: The intensities of microwave radiation in the exposure residential districts were more higher than those of the control residential districts (p < 0.05). There was a intensity peak at about 10 m from the station, it would gradually weaken with the increase of the distance. The level of microwave radiation in antenna main lobe region is not certainly more higher than the side lobe direction, and the side lobe direction also is not more lower. At the same district, where there were two base stations, the electromagnetic field nestification would take place in someplace. The intensities of microwave radiation outside the exposure windows in the resident room not only changed with distance but also with the height of the floor. The intensities of microwave radiation inside the aluminum alloys security net were more lower than those of outside the aluminum alloys security net (p < 0.05), but the inside or outside of glass-window appears almost no change (p > 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Although all the measure dates on the ground around the base station could be below the primary standard in “environment electromagnetic wave hygienic standard” (GB9175-88), there were still a minorities of windows which exposed to the base station were higher, and the outside or inside of a few window was even higher beyond the primary safe level defined standard. The aluminum alloys security net can partly shield the microwave radiation from the mobile phone base station.

 

Danger Perception and Symptoms

 

Hutter HP, Moshammer H, Wallner P, Kundi M. Public perception of risk concerning cell towers and mobile phones. Soz Praventivmed. 49(1):62-66, 2004.

OBJECTIVE: The controversy about health risks of electromagnetic fields (EMF) has contributed in raising fears concerning emissions from celltowers. The study was to examine whether or not neighbours of celltowers are particularly concerned about adverse health effects of mobile phones and their base stations. METHODS: Prior to information delivered by medical doctors of the Institute of Environmental Health at public hearings a questionnaire was handed out to participants asking for their personal rating of several environmental health risks including those of mobile telecommunication (n = 123, response rate approx. 48%). Medical students (n = 366) served as a contrast group. RESULTS: Participants rated health risk for both, mobile phones and celltowers higher as students. A trend for higher ratings was also seen with older subjects and female sex. The risk ratings of both exposures correlated well with each other. The magnitude of the perceived risks, however, resembled that of other ubiquitous exposures like traffic noise and air pollution. CONCLUSION: Contrary to the claims of the telecommunication industry, opponents of celltowers generally do not express unusual fears concerning electromagnetic field exposure. The outcome of our study indicates that the risk rating is comparable with other perceived common hazards of the civilised world. It is hypothesised that offering information and participation to the concerned population will be efficient in reducing exaggerated fears.

 

Reason Why Not  A Lot Of Studies on Cell Towers

 

Kundi M, Hutter HP.Mobile phone base stations-Effects on wellbeing and health.Pathophysiology. 16(2-3):123-135, 2009.

Studying effects of mobile phone base station signals on health have been discouraged by authoritative bodies like WHO International EMF Project and COST 281. WHO recommended studies around base stations in 2003 but again stated in 2006 that studies on cancer in relation to base station exposure are of low priority. As a result only few investigations of effects of base station exposure on health and wellbeing exist. Cross-sectional investigations of subjective health as a function of distance or measured field strength, despite differences in methods and robustness of study design, found indications for an effect of exposure that is likely independent of concerns and attributions. Experimental studies applying short-term exposure to base station signals gave various results, but there is weak evidence that UMTS and to a lesser degree GSM signals reduce wellbeing in persons that report to be sensitive to such exposures. Two ecological studies of cancer in the vicinity of base stations report both a strong increase of incidence within a radius of 350 and 400m respectively. Due to the limitations inherent in this design no firm conclusions can be drawn, but the results underline the urgent need for a comprehensive investigation of this issue. Animal and in vitro studies are inconclusive to date. An increased incidence of DMBA induced mammary tumors in rats at a SAR of 1.4W/kg in one experiment could not be replicated in a second trial. Indications of oxidative stress after low-level in vivo exposure of rats could not be supported by in vitro studies of human fibroblasts and glioblastoma cells. From available evidence it is impossible to delineate a threshold below which no effect occurs, however, given the fact that studies reporting low exposure were invariably negative it is suggested that power densities around 0.5-1mW/m(2) must be exceeded in order to observe an effect. The meager data base must be extended in the coming years. The difficulties of investigating long-term effects of base station exposure have been exaggerated, considering that base station and handset exposure have almost nothing in common both needs to be studied independently. It cannot be accepted that studying base stations is postponed until there is firm evidence for mobile phones.

 

Miscellaneous Effects

 

Panagopoulos, D. J., Johansson O. & Carlo G.L. Polarization: A Key Difference between Man-made and Natural Electromagnetic Fields, in regard to Biological Activity. Sci. Rep. 5, 14914; doi: 10.1038/srep14914 (2015). Published online Oct 12, 2015.

In the present study we analyze the role of polarization in the biological activity of Electromagnetic Fields (EMFs)/Electromagnetic Radiation (EMR). All types of man-made EMFs/EMR – in contrast to natural EMFs/EMR – are polarized. Polarized EMFs/EMR can have increased biological activity, due to: 1) Ability to produce constructive interference effects and amplify their intensities at many locations. 2) Ability to force all charged/polar molecules and especially free ions within and around all living cells to oscillate on parallel planes and in phase with the applied polarized field. Such ionic forced-oscillations exert additive electrostatic forces on the sensors of cell membrane electro-sensitive ion channels, resulting in their irregular gating and consequent disruption of the cell’s electrochemical balance. These features render man-made EMFs/EMR more bioactive than natural non-ionizing EMFs/EMR. This explains the increasing number of biological effects discovered during the past few decades to be induced by man-made EMFs, in contrast to natural EMFs in the terrestrial environment which have always been present throughout evolution, although human exposure to the latter ones is normally of significantly higher intensities/energy and longer durations. Thus, polarization seems to be a trigger that significantly increases the probability for the initiation of biological/health effects.

 

Dhami AK. Study of electromagnetic radiation pollution in an Indian city. Environ Monit Assess.184(11):6507-6512, 2012.

Abstract. Electromagnetic radiation emitted by cell phone towers is a form of environmental pollution and is a new health hazard, especially to children and patients. The present studies were taken to estimate the microwave/RF pollution by measuring radiation power densities near schools and hospitals of Chandigarh city in India. The cell phone radiations were measured using a handheld portable power density meter TES 593 and specific absorption rates were estimated from the measured values. These values of electromagnetic radiation in the environment were compared with the levels at which biological system of humans and animals starts getting affected. The values were also compared with the international exposure limits set by the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP). The highest measured power density was 11.48 mW/m(2) which is 1,148% of the biological limit. The results indicated that the exposure levels in the city were below the ICNIRP limit, but much above the biological limit.

 

 

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